Chao Zhou


3 Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂

Authors: Adil Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Awais Ghani, Chao Zhou, Sen Yang, Xiaoping Song


The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.

Keywords: magnetization, Magnetostriction, Phase Transition, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)

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2 HIV Incidence among Men Who Have Sex with Men Measured by Pooling Polymerase Chain Reaction, and Its Comparison with HIV Incidence Estimated by BED-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Observed in a Prospective Cohort

Authors: Mei Han, Jinkou Zhao, Yuan Yao, Liangui Feng, Xianbin Ding, Guohui Wu, Chao Zhou, Lin Ouyang, Rongrong Lu, Bo Zhang


To compare the HIV incidence estimated using BED capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (BED-CEIA) and observed in a cohort against the HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) measured by pooling polymerase chain reaction (pooling-PCR). A total of 617 MSM subjects were included in a respondent driven sampling survey in Chongqing in 2008. Among the 129 that were tested HIV antibody positive, 102 were defined with long-term infection, 27 were assessed for recent HIV infection (RHI) using BED-CEIA. The remaining 488 HIV negative subjects were enrolled to the prospective cohort and followed-up every 6 months to monitor HIV seroconversion. All of the 488 HIV negative specimens were assessed for acute HIV infection (AHI) using pooling-PCR. Among the 488 negative subjects in the open cohort, 214 (43.9%) were followed-up for six months, with 107 person-years of observation and 14 subjects seroconverted. The observed HIV incidence was 12.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI=9.1-15.7). Among the 488 HIV negative specimens, 5 were identified with acute HIV infection using pooling-PCR at an annual rate of 14.02% (95% CI=1.73-26.30). The estimated HIV-1 incidence was 12.02% (95% CI=7.49-16.56) based on BED-CEIA. The HIV incidence estimated with three different approaches was different among subgroups. In the highly HIV prevalent MSM, it costs US$ 1724 to detect one AHI case, while detection of one case of RHI with BED assay costs only US$ 42. Three approaches generated comparable and high HIV incidences, pooling PCR and prospective cohort are more close to the true level of incidence, while BED-CEIA seemed to be the most convenient and economical approach for at-risk population’s HIV incidence evaluation at the beginning of HIV pandemic. HIV-1 incidences were alarmingly high among MSM population in Chongqing, particularly within the subgroup under 25 years of age and those migrants aged between 25 to 34 years.

Keywords: HIV, incidence, prospective cohort, BED-CEIA, pooled PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1 Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China

Authors: Ruobing Liang, Jili Zhang, Chao Zhou


A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, parametric study, absorption chiller, solar PVT collector, solar heating and cooling, solar air-conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 283