Cristina Busuioc

Abstracts

5 Bacterial Cellulose/Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Composites for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Alina Maria Holban, Cristina Busuioc, Adrian Ionut Nicoara, Denisa Ionela Ene

Abstract:

At present, the development of materials with biomedical applications is a domain of interest that will produce a full series of benefits in engineering and medicine. In this sense, it is required to use a natural material, and this paper is focused on the development of a composite material based on bacterial cellulose – hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles with applications in hard tissue. Bacterial cellulose own features like biocompatibility, non-toxicity character and flexibility. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose can be conjugated with different forms of active silver to possess antimicrobial activity. Hydroxyapatite is well known that can mimic at a significant level the activity of the initial bone. The material was synthesized by using an ultrasound probe and finally characterized by several methods. Thereby, the morphological properties were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Because the synthesized material has medical application in restore the tissue and to fight against microbial invasion, the samples were tested from the biological point of view by evaluating the biodegradability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluid (SBF) and moreover the antimicrobial effect was performed on Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and fungi Candida albicans. The results reveal that the obtained material has specific characteristics for bone regeneration.

Keywords: Biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, bacterial cellulose, scaffolds materials

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4 Synthesis of Tricalcium Phosphate Substituted with Magnesium Ions for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Georgeta Voicu, Cristina Busuioc, Andreia Cucuruz

Abstract:

Ceramics based on calcium phosphates have lately increased attention for tissue engineering because they can be used as substitute bones or for bone regeneration since they mimic very well the nanostructure of tough bone tissue, but also because of other advantages such as a very good biocompatibility and osseointegration. This study aims the preparation and characterization of ceramic materials on the basis of TCP (Ca₃(PO₄)₂), within which calcium ions are substituted by magnesium ions (Mg²⁺) in order to improve the regenerative properties of these materials. TCP-Mg material was synthesized by chemical precipitation method using calcium oxide (CaO) and phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) as precursors. The objective was to obtain powders with different concentrations of Mg in order to analyze the effect of magnesium ions on the physicochemical properties of phosphate ceramics and in vitro degradation in simulated biological fluid (SBF). Ceramic powders were characterized in vitro but also from the compositional and microstructural point of view. TCP_Mg powders were prepared through wet chemical method from calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide nanopowder (MgO < 50 nm particle size (BET) Sigma Aldrich), phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄ - 85 wt.% in H₂O, 99.99% trace metals basis - Sigma Aldrich). In order to determine the quantities of raw materials, calculations were performed to obtain HAp with Ca/P ratio of 1.5.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Bone Regeneration, tricalcium phosphate, magnesium substitution

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3 Influence of BaTiO₃ on the Biological Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite: Collagen Composites

Authors: Georgeta Voicu, Cristina Busuioc, Sorin-Ion Jinga

Abstract:

The human bone presents in its dry form piezoelectric properties, which means that a mechanical stress results in electric polarization and an applied electric field causes strain. The immediate consequence was the revealing of piezoelectricity role in bone remodelling, as well as the integration of ceramic materials with piezoelectric behaviour in the composition of unitary or composite biomaterials. Thus, we prepared hydroxyapatite - collagen hybrid materials with barium titanate addition in order to achieve a better osseointegration. Barium titanate powder synthesized by a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal method, commercial hydroxyapatite and laboratory extracted collagen gel were employed as starting materials. Before the composites, fabrication, the powder with piezoelectric features was characterized in detail from the compositional, structural, morphological and electrical point of view. The next step was to elucidate the influence of barium titanate presence especially on the biological properties of the final materials. The biocompatibility of the hybrid supports without or with piezoelectric addition was investigated on mouse osteoblast cells through LDH cytotoxicity assay, LIVE/DEAD cell viability assay, and MTT cell proliferation assay. All results indicated that the analysed materials do not exert cytotoxic effects and present the ability to sustain cell survival and to promote their proliferation. In conclusion, barium titanate nanoparticles exhibit a good biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties, while the derived composite materials based on hydroxyapatite as oxide phase and collagen as polymeric phase can be successfully used for tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, Hybrid Composites, Piezoelectricity, barium titanate

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2 Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan Composites for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Georgeta Voicu, Cristina Busuioc, Andreia Cucuruz

Abstract:

In the field of tissue engineering, the compositional and microstructural features of the employed materials play an important role, with implications on the mechanical and biological behaviour of the medical devices. In this context, the development of apatite - natural biopolymer composites represents a choice of many scientific groups. Thus, hydroxyapatite powders were synthesized by a wet method, namely co-precipitation, starting from high purity reagents (CaO, MgO, and H3PO4). Moreover, the substitution of calcium with magnesium have been approached, in the 5 - 10 wt.% range. Afterward, the phosphate powders were integrated in two types of composites with chitosan, different from morphological point of view. First, 3D porous scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying procedure. Second, uniform, compact films were achieved by film casting. The influence of chitosan molecular weight (low, medium and high), as well as apatite powder to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the morphological properties, were analysed in detail. In conclusion, the reported biocomposites, prepared by a straightforward route are suitable for bone substitution or repairing applications.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, chitosan, bone reconstruction, composite scaffolds

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1 Synthesis of Smart Materials Based on Polyaniline Coated Fibers

Authors: Mihaela Beregoi, Horia Iovu, Cristina Busuioc, Alexandru Evanghelidis, Elena Matei, Monica Enculescu, Ionut Enculescu

Abstract:

Nanomaterials field is very attractive for all researchers who are attempting to develop new devices with the same or improved properties than the micro-sized ones, while reducing the reagents and power consumptions. In this way, a wide range of nanomaterials were fabricated and integrated in applications for electronics, optoelectronics, solar cells, tissue reconstruction and drug delivery. Obviously, the most appealing ones are those dedicated to the medical domain. Different types of nano-sized materials, such as particles, fibers, films etc., can be synthesized by using physical, chemical or electrochemical methods. One of these techniques is electrospinning, which enable the production of fibers with nanometric dimensions by pumping a polymeric solution in a high electric field; due to the electrostatic charging and solvent evaporation, the precursor mixture is converted into nonwoven meshes with different fiber densities and mechanical properties. Moreover, polyaniline is a conducting polymer with interesting optical properties, suitable for displays and electrochromic windows. Otherwise, polyaniline is an electroactive polymer that can contract/expand by applying electric stimuli, due to the oxidation/reduction reactions which take place in the polymer chains. These two main properties can be exploited in order to synthesize smart materials that change their dimensions, exhibiting in the same time good electrochromic properties. In the context aforesaid, a poly(methyl metacrylate) solution was spun to get webs composed of fibers with diameter values between 500 nm and 1 µm. Further, the polymer meshes were covered with a gold layer in order to make them conductive and also appropriate as working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The gold shell was deposited by DC sputtering. Such metalized fibers can be transformed into smart materials by covering them with a thin layer of conductive polymer. Thus, the webs were coated with a polyaniline film by the electrochemical route, starting from and aqueous solution of aniline and sulfuric acid, where sulfuric acid acts as oxidant agent. For the polymerization of aniline, a saturated calomel electrode was employed as reference, a platinum plate as counter electrode and the gold covered webs as working electrode. Chronoamperometry was selected as deposition method for polyaniline, by modifying the deposition time. Metalized meshes with different fiber densities were used, the transmission ranging between 70 and 80 %. The morphological investigation showed that polyaniline layer has a granular structure for all deposition experiments. As well, some preliminary optical tests were done by using sulfuric acid as electrolyte, which revealed the modification of polyaniline colour from green to dark blue when applying a voltage. In conclusion, new multilayered materials were obtained by a simple approach: the merge of the electrospinning method benefits with polyaniline chemistry. This synthesis method allows the fabrication of structures with reproducible characteristics, suitable for display or tissue substituents.

Keywords: Smart Materials, Electrospinning, fibers, polyaniline

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