Sylvain Caillol


5 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: Bio-based, vanillin, phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, non-toxic

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4 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol


Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: epoxy, emulsion, latex, cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, vinyl ester

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3 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache, Bernard Boutevin


Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: Lignin, epoxy, carbonate, amine, vanillin

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2 Syntheses of Biobased Hybrid Poly(epoxy-hydroxyurethane) Polymers

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Sylvain Caillol, Bernard Boutevon


The development of polyurethanes began in 1937 at I. G. Farbenindustrie where Bayer with coworkers discovered the addition polymerization reaction between diisocyanates and diols. Since their discovery, the demand in PU has continued to increase and it will attain in 2016 a production of 18 million tons. However, isocyanates compounds are harmful to human and environment. Methylene diphenyl 4,4’-diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), the most widely used isocyanates in PU industry, are classified as CMR (Carcinogen, Mutagen, and Reprotoxic). In order to design isocyanate-free materials, an interesting alternative is the use of Polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) by reaction between cyclic carbonate and polyfunctional amines. The main problem concerning PHUs synthesis relates to the low reactivity of carbonate/amine reaction. To solve this issue, many studies in the literature have been conducted to design PHU from more reactive cyclic-carbonates, bearing electro-withdrawing substituent or by using six-membered, seven-membered or thio-cyclic carbonate. The main drawback of all these systems remains the low molar masses obtained for the synthesized PHUs, which hinders their use for material applications. Therefore, we developed another strategy to afford new hybrid PHU with high conversion. This very innovative two-step approach consists in the first step in the synthesis of aminotelechelic PHU oligomers with different chain length from bis-cyclic carbonate with different excess of primary amine functions. In the second step, these aminotelechelic PHU oligomers were used in formulation with biobased epoxy monomers (from cashew nut shell liquid and tannins) to synthesize hybrid polyepoxyurethane polymers. These materials were then characterized by thermal and mechanical analyses.

Keywords: carbonates, epoxy, polyurethane, amine, polyhydroxyurethane, aminotelechelic NIPU oligomers, epoxyurethane polymers, hybrid polymers

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1 Can We Meet the New Challenges of NonIsocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) towards NIPU Foams?

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Marine Blain, Bernard Boutevin, Sylvain Caillol


Generally, linear polyurethanes (PUs) are obtained by the reaction between an oligomeric diol, a short diol as chain extender and a diisocyanate. However the use of diisocyanate should be avoided since they are generally very harmful for human health. Therefore the synthesis of NIPUs (non isocyanate PUs) from step growth polymerization of dicyclocarbonates and diamines should be favoured. This method is particularly interesting since no hazardous isocyanates are used. Thus, this reaction, extensively studied by Endo et al. is currently gaining a lot of attention as a substitution route for the synthesis of NIPUs, both from industrial and academic community. However, the reactivity of reaction between amine and cyclic carbonate is a major scientific issue, since cyclic carbonates are poorly reactive. Thus, our team developed several synthetic ways for the synthesis of various di-cyclic carbonates based on C5-, C6- and dithio- cyclic carbonates, from different biobased raw materials (glycerin isosorbide, vegetable oils…). These monomers were used to synthesize NIPUs with various mechanical and thermal properties for various applications. We studied the reactivity of reaction with various catalysts and find optimized conditions for room temperature reaction. We also studied the radical copolymerization of cyclic carbonate monomers in styrene-acrylate copolymers for coating applications. We also succeeded in the elaboration of biobased NIPU flexible foams. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in literature on the preparation of non-isocyanate polyurethane foams.

Keywords: Scanning Electron Microscopy, foam, nonisocyanate polyurethane, cyclic carbonate, blowing agent

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