Vidya Yadav

Abstracts

3 Tale of Massive Distressed Migration from Rural to Urban Areas: A Study of Mumbai City

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

Migration is the demographic process that links rural to urban areas, generating or spurring the growth of cities. Evidence shows the role of the city as a production processes. It looks the city as a power of centre, and a centre of change. It has been observed that not only the professionals want to settle down in an urban area but rural labourers are also coming to cities for employment. These are the people who are compelled to migrate to metropolises because of lack of employment opportunities in their place of residence. However, the cities also fail to provide adequate employment because of limited job opportunity creation and capital-intensive industrialization. So these masses of incoming migrants are force to take up whatever employment absorption is available to them particularly in urban informal activities. Ultimately with this informal job they are compelled to stay in the slum areas, which is another form of deprived housing colonies. The paper seeks to examine the evidences of poverty induced migration from rural to urban areas (particularly in urban agglomeration). The present paper utilizes an abundant rich source of census migration data (D-Series) of 1991-2001. Result shows that Mumbai remain as the most attractive place to migrate. The migrants are mainly from the major states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Rajasthan. Male dominated migration is related mostly for employment and females due to marriages. The picture of occupational absorption of migrants who moved for employment, cross classified with educational status. Result shows that illiterate males are primarily engaged in low grade production processing work. Illiterate’s females engaged in service sectors; but these are actually very low grade services in urban informal sectors in India like maid servants, domestic help, hawkers, vendors or vegetables sellers. Among the higher educational level, a small percentage of males and females got absorbed in professional or clerical work but the percentage has been increased in the period 1991-2001.

Keywords: Migration, Urban, job, informal

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2 Youth and Employment: An Outlook on Challenges of Demographic Dividend

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

India’s youth bulge is now sharpest at the critical 15-24 age group, even as its youngest, and oldest age groups begin to narrow. As the ‘single year, age data’ for the 2011 Census releases the data on the number of people at each year of age in the population. The data shows that India’s working age population (15-64 years) is now 63.4 percent of the total, as against just short of 60 percent in 2001. The numbers also show that the ‘dependency ratio’ the ratio of children (0-14) and the elderly (65 above) to those in the working age has shrunk further to 0.55. “Even as the western world is in ageing situation, these new numbers show that India’s population is still very young”. As the fertility falls faster in urban areas, rural India is younger than urban India; while 51.73 percent of rural Indians are under the age of 24 and 45.9 percent of urban Indians are under 24. The percentage of the population under the age of 24 has dropped, but many demographers say that it should not be interpreted as a sign of the youth bulge is shrinking. Rather it is because of “declining fertility, the number of infants and children reduces first, and this is what we see with the number of under age 24. Indeed the figure shows that the proportion of children in the 0-4 and 5-9 age groups has fallen in 2011 compared to 2001. For the first time, the percentage of children in the 10-14 age group has also fallen, as the effect of families reducing the number of children they have begins to be felt. The present paper key issue is to examine that “whether this growing youth bulge has the right skills for the workforce or not”. The study seeks to examine the youth population structure and employment distribution among them in India during 2001-2011 in different industrial category. It also tries to analyze the workforce participation rate as main and marginal workers both for male and female workers in rural and urban India by utilizing an abundant source of census data from 2001-2011. Result shows that an unconscionable number of adolescents are working when they should study. In rural areas, large numbers of youths are working as an agricultural labourer. Study shows that most of the youths working are in the 15-19 age groups. In fact, this is the age of entry into higher education, but due to economic compulsion forces them to take up jobs, killing their dreams of higher skills or education. Youths are primarily engaged in low paying irregular jobs which are clearly revealed by census data on marginal workers. That is those who get work for less than six months in a year. Large proportions of youths are involved in the cultivation and household industries works.

Keywords: Work, Youth, main, marginal

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1 Looking at Women’s Status in India through Different Lenses: Evidence from Second Wave of IHDS Data

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

In every society, males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, and in every culture, those expectation, values and norms are different and vary accordingly. Many of the inequalities between men and women are rooted in institutional structure such as in educational field, labour market, wages, decision-making power, access to services as well as in accessing the health and well-being care also. The marriage and kinship pattern shape both men’s and women’s lives. Earlier many studies have highlighted the gender disparities which vary tremendously between regions, social classes, and communities. This study will try to explore the prominent indicators to show the status of women and well-being condition in Indian society. Primarily this paper concern with firstly identification of indicators related to gender in each area like education, work status, mobility, women participation in public and private decision making, autonomy and domestic violence etc. And once the indicators are identified next task is to define them. The indicators which are selected here are for a comparison of women’s status across Indian states. Recent Indian Human Development Survey, 2011-12 has been procured to show the current situation of women. Result shows that in spite of rising levels of education and images of growing westernization in India, love marriages remain in rarity even among urban elite. In India marriage is universal, and most of the men and women marry at relatively young age. Even though the legal age of marriage is 18, but more than 60 percent are married before the legal age. Not surprisingly, but Bihar and Rajasthan are the states with earliest age at marriage. Most of them reported that they have very limited contact with their husband before marriages. Around 69 percent of women met their husbands on the day of the wedding or shortly before. In spite of decline in fertility, still childbearing remains essential to women’s lives. Mostly women aged 25 and older had at least one child. Women’s control over household resources, physical space and mobility is also limited. Indian women’s, mostly rely on men to purchase day to day necessities, as well as medicines, as well as other necessary items. This ultimately reduces the likelihood that women have cash in hand for such purchases. The story is quite different when it comes to have control over decision over purchasing household assets such as TVs or refrigerator, names on the bank account, and home ownership papers. However, the likelihood of ownership rises among urbanite educated women’s. Women’s still have to the cultural norms and the practice of purdah or ghunghat, familial control over women’s physical movement. Wife beating and domestic violence still remain pervasive, and beaten for minor transgression like going out without permission. Development of India cannot be realized without the very significant component of gender. Therefore detailed examinations of different indicators are required to understand, strategize, plan and formulate programmes.

Keywords: Gender, Violence, Autonomy, Empowerment

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