Taekwang Kim


2 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Kwang Ryel Ryu, Taekwang Kim, Jiheon Park


Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

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1 Iterative Replanning of Diesel Generator and Energy Storage System for Stable Operation of an Isolated Microgrid

Authors: Kwang Ryel Ryu, Jiin Jeong, Taekwang Kim


The target microgrid in this paper is isolated from the large central power system and is assumed to consist of wind generators, photovoltaic power generators, an energy storage system (ESS), a diesel power generator, the community load, and a dump load. The operation of such a microgrid can be hazardous because of the uncertain prediction of power supply and demand and especially due to the high fluctuation of the output from the wind generators. In this paper, we propose an iterative replanning method for determining the appropriate level of diesel generation and the charging/discharging cycles of the ESS for the upcoming one-hour horizon. To cope with the uncertainty of the estimation of supply and demand, the one-hour plan is built repeatedly in the regular interval of one minute by rolling the one-hour horizon. Since the plan should be built with a sufficiently large safe margin to avoid any possible black-out, some energy waste through the dump load is inevitable. In our approach, the level of safe margin is optimized through learning from the past experience. The simulation experiments show that our method combined with the margin optimization can reduce the dump load compared to the method without such optimization.

Keywords: Microgrid, Operation Planning, power efficiency optimization, supply and demand prediction

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