Junaid Ahmed


3 Incidental Findings in the Maxillofacial Region Detected on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Nandita Shenoy, Zeena Dcosta, Ceena Denny


In the field of dentistry, there are many conditions which warrant the requirement of three-dimensional imaging that can aid in diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is considered highly accurate in producing a three-dimensional image of an object and provides a complete insight of various findings in the captured volume. But, most of the clinicians focus primarily on the teeth and jaws and numerous unanticipated clinically significant incidental findings may be missed out. Rapid integration of CBCT into the practice of dentistry has led to the detection of various incidental findings. However, the prevalence of these incidental findings is still unknown. Thus, the study aimed to discern the reason for referral and to identify incidental findings on the referred CBCT scans. Patient’s demographic data such as age and gender was noted. CBCT scans of multiple fields of views (FOV) were considered. The referral for CBCT scans was broadly classified into two major categories: diagnostic scan and treatment planning scan. Any finding on the CBCT volumes, other than the area of concern was recorded as incidental finding which was noted under airway, developmental, pathological, endodontics, TMJ, bone, soft tissue calcifications and others. Few of the incidental findings noted under airway were deviated nasal septum, nasal turbinate hypertrophy, mucosal thickening and pneumatization of sinus. Developmental incidental findings included dilaceration, impaction, pulp stone and gubernacular canal. Resorption of teeth and periapical pathologies were noted under pathological incidental findings. Root fracture along with over and under obturation was noted under endodontics. Incidental findings under TMJ were flattening, erosion and bifid condyle. Enostosis and exostosis were noted under bone lesions. Tonsillolth, sialolith and calcified styloid ligament were noted under soft tissue calcifications. Incidental findings under others included foreign body, fused C1- C2 vertebrae, nutrient canals, and pneumatocyst. Maxillofacial radiologists should be aware of possible incidental findings and should be vigilant about comprehensively evaluating the entire captured volume, which can help in early diagnosis of any potential pathologies that may go undetected. Interpretation of CBCT is truly an art and with the experience, we can unravel the secrets hidden in the grey shades of the radiographic image.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, incidental findings, maxillofacial region, radiologist

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2 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi


This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: Glass Fibers, retrofitting, confinement, carbon fiber reinforced polymers

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1 Learn Better to Earn Better: Importance of CPD in Dentistry

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Nandita Shenoy


Maintaining lifelong knowledge and skills is essential for safe clinical practice. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is an established method that can facilitate lifelong learning. It focuses on maintaining or developing knowledge, skills and relationships to ensure competent practice.To date, relatively little has been done to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence to identify subjects of interest among practising dentist. Hence the aim of our study was to identify areas in clinical practice that would be favourable for continuing professional dental education amongst practicing dentists. Participants of this study consisted of the practicing dental surgeons of Mangalore, a city in Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka. 95% of our practitioners felt that regular updating as a one day program once in 3-6 months is required, to keep them abreast in clinical practice. 60% of subjects feel that CPD programs enrich their theoretical knowledge and helps in patient care. 27% of them felt that CPD programs should be related to general dentistry. Most of them felt that CPD programs should not be charged nominally between one to two thousand rupees. The acronym ‘CPD’ should be seen in a broader view in which professionals continuously enhance not only their knowledge and skills, but also their thinking,understanding and maturity; they grow not only as professionals, but also as persons; their development is not restricted to their work roles, but may also extend to new roles and responsibilities.

Keywords: Dental Education, continuing professional development, competent practice, practising dentist

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