Rui Wang


4 Experimenting with Clay 3D Printing Technology to Create an Undulating Facade

Authors: Rui Wang, Naeimehsadat Hosseininam, Dishita Shah


In recent years, new experimental approaches with the help of the new technology have bridged the gaps between the application of natural materials and creating unconventional forms. Clay has been one of the oldest building materials in all ancient civilizations. The availability and workability of clay have contributed to the widespread application of this material around the world. The aim of this experimental research is to apply the Clay 3D printing technology to create a load bearing and visually dynamic and undulating façade. Creation of different unique pieces is the most significant goal of this research which justifies the application of 3D printing technology instead of the conventional mass industrial production. This study provides an abbreviated overview of the similar cases which have used the Clay 3D printing to generate the corresponding prototypes. The study of these cases also helps in understanding the potential and flexibility of the material and 3D printing machine in developing different forms. In the next step, experimental research carried out by 3D printing of six various options which designed considering the properties of clay as well as the methodology of them being 3D printed. Here, the ratio of water to clay (W/C) has a significant role in the consistency of the material and the workability of the clay. Also, the size of the selected nozzle impacts the shape and the smoothness of the final surface. Moreover, the results of these experiments show the limitations of clay toward forming various slopes. The most notable consequence of having steep slopes in the prototype is an unpredicted collapse which is the result of internal tension in the material. From the six initial design ideas, the final prototype selected with the aim of creating a self-supported component with unique blocks that provides a possibility of installing the insulation system within the component. Apart from being an undulated façade, the presented prototype has the potential to be used as a fence and an interior partition (double-sided). The central shaft also provides a space to run services or insulation in different parts of the wall. In parallel to present the capability and potential of the clay 3D printing technology, this study illustrates the limitations of this system in some certain areas. There are inevitable parameters such as printing speed, temperature, drying speed that need to be considered while printing each piece. Clay 3D printing technology provides the opportunity to create variations and design parametric building components with the application of the most practiced material in the world.

Keywords: clay 3D printing, material capability, undulating facade, load bearing facade

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3 The Perception and Integration of Lexical Tone and Vowel in Mandarin-speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

Authors: Yang Zhang, Rui Wang, Dan Huang, Suiping Wang, Luodi Yu, Hsuan-Chih Chen


Enhanced discrimination of pure tones but diminished discrimination of speech pitch (i.e., lexical tone) were found in children with autism who speak a tonal language (Mandarin), suggesting a speech-specific impairment of pitch perception in these children. However, in tonal languages, both lexical tone and vowel are phonemic cues and integrally dependent on each other. Therefore, it is unclear whether the presence of phonemic vowel dimension contributes to the observed lexical tone deficits in Mandarin-speaking children with autism. The current study employed a multi-feature oddball paradigm to examine how vowel and tone dimensions contribute to the neural responses for syllable change detection and involuntary attentional orienting in school-age Mandarin-speaking children with autism. In the oddball sequence, syllable /da1/ served as the standard stimulus. There were three deviant stimulus conditions, representing tone-only change (TO, /da4/), vowel-only change (VO, /du1/), and change of tone and vowel simultaneously (TV, /du4/). EEG data were collected from 25 children with autism and 20 age-matched normal controls during passive listening to the stimulation. For each deviant condition, difference waveform measuring mismatch negativity (MMN) was derived from subtracting the ERP waveform to the standard sound from that to the deviant sound for each participant. Additionally, the linear summation of TO and VO difference waveforms was compared to the TV difference waveform, to examine whether neural sensitivity for TV change detection reflects simple summation or nonlinear integration of the two individual dimensions. The MMN results showed that the autism group had smaller amplitude compared with the control group in the TO and VO conditions, suggesting impaired discriminative sensitivity for both dimensions. In the control group, amplitude of the TV difference waveform approximated the linear summation of the TO and VO waveforms only in the early time window but not in the late window, suggesting a time course from dimensional summation to nonlinear integration. In the autism group, however, the nonlinear TV integration was already present in the early window. These findings suggest that speech perception atypicality in children with autism rests not only in the processing of single phonemic dimensions, but also in the dimensional integration process.

Keywords: autism, Speech Perception, mismatch negativity, event-related potentials

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2 Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Rui Wang, Shengzhu Cao, Hui Zhou, Gan Wu, Lanxi Wanhg, Kaifeng Zhang, Hu Wang


The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.

Keywords: femtosecond laser, surface functional, micro and nanostructures, ablation

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1 Foreign Banks Taking More Risk: Evidence from Emerging Economies

Authors: Minghua Chen, Rui Wang


This paper addresses the impact of foreign ownership on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Using bank-level panel data of more than 1,300 commercial banks in 32 emerging economies during 2000-2013, we find that foreign owned banks take on more risk than their domestic counterparts. We further examine several factors that may potentially contribute to foreign banks’ differentiated riskiness from four perspectives, namely, foreign banks’ informational disadvantages, agency problems, the contagious effect of parent banks’ financial conditions and the disparity between home and host markets. We find supportive evidence that these factors play a significant role in affecting foreign banks’ risk-taking.

Keywords: Emerging Economies, Foreign Banks, financial liberalization, bank risk-taking

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