Vijay Jayasena

Abstracts

3 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Vijay Jayasena, Thi Huong Vu, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, carob kibble, d-pinitol, total carbohydrates

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2 Evaluation of the Capabilities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in Improvement of Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Carob Kibble

Authors: Vijay Jayasena, Thi Huong Vu, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

Abstract:

Carob kibble has recently received attention due to the presence of high level of polyphenol antioxidants. The capacity of microorganisms to improve antioxidant activities and total phenolics in carob kibble was investigated in the study. Two types of microorganisms including lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) were used in single and in their combination as starters. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activities were assessed scavenging capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The study found that S. cerevisiae alone considerably improved 55% total phenolics content at 15 h, while L. plantarum caused in a loss of 20% through the process. Antioxidant capacity of the yeast-fermented samples significantly increased by 43 % and 10 % in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. However, reduction of 13 % and 32 % inhibition were recorded in the carob treated with L. plantarum. In the combination of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum (1:1), both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob kibble were a similar trend as these of S. cerevisiae single, but a lower improvement. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their total phenolic contents (R=0.75). The results suggested that S. cerevisiae alone was the better for enhancement of both total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in carob kibble using submerged fermentation. The efficiency of fermentation reached the highest at 15h. Thus submerged fermentation with S. cerevisiae offers a tool with simple and cost effective to further increase the bioactive potential of carob kibble, which is in use for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, total phenolics, carob kibble

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1 Phytoestrogen Content of Fermented Lupin Tempeh and Natto

Authors: Niranjani Wickramsinghe, Mario Soares, Stuart Johnson, Ranil Cooray, Vijay Jayasena

Abstract:

Tempeh is a traditional fermented soya bean food in Indonesia which is produced from de-hulled soya fermented with Rhizopusoligosporus. Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from whole soya bean seed fermentation with the bacteriaBacillus subtilis natto. Lupin is a grain legume with a low content of the phytoestrogenic isoflavones genistein and daidzein compared to soya. However due a comparable nutrition profile and increased cost effectiveness relative to soy, lupin has been substituted into various oriental fermented foods such as tempe and natto. Lupin tempeh and lupin natto were prepared using either WS or DHS. Analysis for genistein and daidzein content was conducted using HPLC for time points zero, 12h, 24h, 36h, 48h and 72h after fermentation. Results revealed that the amount of genistein and daidzein significantly increased with time in both tempeh and natto. Both isoflavones peaked at 48h in lupin tempeh and earlier at 36h in lupin natto. WS tempeh and WS natto had significantly more genistein than WHS tempe and WHS natto. Diadzeincontent of WHS tended to be higher than WS across both products. It is concluded that, fermentation time increased the amount of genistein and daidzein content in both lupin tempeh and natto and the form of lupin raw material used affected the genistein level and to some extent the daidzein content of fermented products.

Keywords: tempeh, Lupin, natto, soya

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