R. Hoffmann


1 Examinations of Sustainable Protection Possibilities against Granary Weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) on Stored Products

Authors: F. Pal-Fam, R. Hoffmann, S. Keszthelyi


Granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Col.: Curculionidae) is a typical cosmopolitan pest. It can cause significant damage to stored grains, and can drastically decrease yields. Damaged grain has reduced nutritional and market value, weaker germination, and reduced weight. The commonly used protectants against stored-product pests in Europe are residual insecticides, applied directly to the product. Unfortunately, these pesticides can be toxic to mammals, the residues can accumulate in the treated products, and many pest species could become resistant to the protectants. During recent years, alternative solutions of grain protection have received increased attention. These solutions are considered as the most promising alternatives to residual insecticides. The aims of our comparative study were to obtain information about the efficacies of the 1. diatomaceous earth, 2. sterile insect technology and 3. herbal oils against the S. granarius on grain (foremost maize), and to evaluate the influence of the dose rate on weevil mortality and progeny. The main results of our laboratory experiments are the followings: 1. Diatomaceous earth was especially efficacious against S. granarius, but its insecticidal properties depend on exposure time and applied dose. The efficacy on barley was better than on maize. Mortality value of the highest dose was 85% on the 21st day in the case of barley. It can be ascertained that complete elimination of progeny was evidenced on both gain types. To summarize, a satisfactory efficacy level was obtained only on barley at a rate of 4g/kg. Alteration of efficacy between grain types can be explained with differences in grain surface. 2. The mortality consequences of Roentgen irradiation on the S. granarius was highly influenced by the exposure time, and the dose applied. At doses of 50 and 70Gy, the efficacy accepted in plant protection (mortality: 95%) was recorded only on the 21st day. During the application of 100 and 200Gy doses, high mortality values (83.5% and 97.5%) were observed on the 14th day. Our results confirmed the complete sterilizing effect of the doses of 70Gy and above. The autocide effect of 50 and 70Gy doses were demonstrated when irradiated specimens were mixed into groups of fertile specimens. Consequently, these doses might be successfully applied to put sterile insect technique (SIT) into practice. 3. The results revealed that both studied essential oils (Callendula officinalis, Hippophae rhamnoides) exerted strong toxic effect on S. granarius, but C. officinalis triggered higher mortality. The efficacy (94.62 ± 2.63%) was reached after a 48 hours exposure to H. rhamnoides oil at 2ml/kg while the application of 2ml/kg of C. officinalis oil for 24 hours produced 98.94 ± 1.00% mortality rate. Mortality was 100% at 5 ml/kg of H. rhamnoides after 24 hours duration of its application, while with C. officinalis the same value could be reached after a 12 hour-exposure to the oil. Both essential oils applied were eliminated the progeny.

Keywords: Protection, alternative solutions, Sitophilus granarius, stored product

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