Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstracts

2 Moderate Electric Field Influence on Carotenoids Extraction Time from Heterochlorella luteoviridis

Authors: Débora P. Jaeschke, Eduardo A. Merlo, Rosane Rech, Giovana D. Mercali, Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstract:

Carotenoids are high value added pigments that can be alternatively extracted from some microalgae species. However, the application of carotenoids synthetized by microalgae is still limited due to the utilization of organic toxic solvents. In this context, studies involving alternative extraction methods have been conducted with more sustainable solvents to replace and reduce the solvent volume and the extraction time. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the extraction time of carotenoids from the microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis using moderate electric field (MEF) as a pre-treatment to the extraction. The extraction methodology consisted of a pre-treatment in the presence of MEF (180 V) and ethanol (25 %, v/v) for 10 min, followed by a diffusive step performed for 50 min using a higher ethanol concentration (75 %, v/v). The extraction experiments were conducted at 30 °C and, to keep the temperature at this value, it was used an extraction cell with a water jacket that was connected to a water bath. Also, to enable the evaluation of MEF effect on the extraction, control experiments were performed using the same cell and conditions without voltage application. During the extraction experiments, samples were withdrawn at 1, 5 and 10 min of the pre-treatment and at 1, 5, 30, 40 and 50 min of the diffusive step. Samples were, then, centrifuged and carotenoids analyses were performed in the supernatant. Furthermore, an exhaustive extraction with ethyl acetate and methanol was performed, and the carotenoids content found for this analyses was considered as the total carotenoids content of the microalgae. The results showed that the application of MEF as a pre-treatment to the extraction influenced the extraction yield and the extraction time during the diffusive step; after the MEF pre-treatment and 50 min of the diffusive step, it was possible to extract up to 60 % of the total carotenoids content. Also, results found for carotenoids concentration of the extracts withdrawn at 5 and 30 min of the diffusive step did not presented statistical difference, meaning that carotenoids diffusion occurs mainly in the very beginning of the extraction. On the other hand, the results for control experiments showed that carotenoids diffusion occurs mostly during 30 min of the diffusive step, which evidenced MEF effect on the extraction time. Moreover, carotenoids concentration on samples withdrawn during the pre-treatment (1, 5 and 10 min) were below the quantification limit of the analyses, indicating that the extraction occurred in the diffusive step, when ethanol (75 %, v/v) was added to the medium. It is possible that MEF promoted cell membrane permeabilization and, when ethanol (75 %) was added, carotenoids interacted with the solvent and the diffusion occurred easily. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that MEF promoted the decrease of carotenoids extraction time due to the increasing of the permeability of the cell membrane which facilitates the diffusion from the cell to the medium.

Keywords: Microalgae, Ethanol, Pigments, moderate electric field (MEF)

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1 Moderate Electric Field and Ultrasound as Alternative Technologies to Raspberry Juice Pasteurization Process

Authors: Cibele F. Oliveira, Debora P. Jaeschke, Rodrigo R. Laurino, Amanda R. Andrade, Ligia D. F. Marczak

Abstract:

Raspberry is well-known as a good source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanin. Some studies pointed out the importance of these bioactive compounds consumption, which is related to the decrease of the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The most consumed raspberry products are juices, yogurts, ice creams and jellies and, to ensure the safety of these products, raspberry is commonly pasteurized, for enzyme and microorganisms inactivation. Despite being efficient, the pasteurization process can lead to degradation reactions of the bioactive compounds, decreasing the products healthy benefits. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate moderate electric field (MEF) and ultrasound (US) technologies application on the pasteurization process of raspberry juice and compare the results with conventional pasteurization process. For this, phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content and physical-chemical parameters (pH, color changes, titratable acidity) of the juice were evaluated before and after the treatments. Moreover, microbiological analyses of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms, molds and yeast were performed in the samples before and after the treatments, to verify the potential of these technologies to inactivate microorganisms. All the pasteurization processes were performed in triplicate for 10 min, using a cylindrical Pyrex® vessel with a water jacket. The conventional pasteurization was performed at 90 °C using a hot water bath connected to the extraction cell. The US assisted pasteurization was performed using 423 and 508 W cm-2 (75 and 90 % of ultrasound intensity). It is important to mention that during US application the temperature was kept below 35 °C; for this, the water jacket of the extraction cell was connected to a water bath with cold water. MEF assisted pasteurization experiments were performed similarly to US experiments, using 25 and 50 V. Control experiments were performed at the maximum temperature of US and MEF experiments (35 °C) to evaluate only the effect of the aforementioned technologies on the pasteurization. The results showed that phenolic compounds concentration in the juice was not affected by US and MEF application. However, it was observed that the US assisted pasteurization, performed at the highest intensity, decreased anthocyanin content in 33 % (compared to in natura juice). This result was possibly due to the cavitation phenomena, which can lead to free radicals formation and accumulation on the medium; these radicals can react with anthocyanin decreasing the content of these antioxidant compounds in the juice. Physical-chemical parameters did not present statistical differences for samples before and after the treatments. Microbiological analyses results showed that all the pasteurization treatments decreased the microorganism content in two logarithmic cycles. However, as values were lower than 1000 CFU mL-1 it was not possible to verify the efficacy of each treatment. Thus, MEF and US were considered as potential alternative technologies for pasteurization process, once in the right conditions the application of the technologies decreased microorganism content in the juice and did not affected phenolic and anthocyanin content, as well as physical-chemical parameters. However, more studies are needed regarding the influence of MEF and US processes on microorganisms’ inactivation.

Keywords: Phenolic Compounds, MEF, anthocyanin, microorganism inactivation

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