Keylla H. N. P. Pereira

Abstracts

8 Neonatology Clinical Routine in Cats and Dogs: Cases, Main Conditions and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal care of cats and dogs represents a challenge to veterinarians due to the small size of the newborns and their physiological particularities. In addition, many Veterinary Medicine colleges around the world do not include neonatology in the curriculum, which makes it less likely for the veterinarian to have basic knowledge regarding neonatal care and worsens the clinical care these patients receive. Therefore, lack of assistance and negligence have become frequent in the field, which contributes towards the high mortality rates. This study aims at describing cases and the main conditions pertaining to the neonatology clinical routine in cats and dogs, highlighting the importance of specialized care in this field of Veterinary Medicine. The study included 808 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. Of these, 87.3% (705/808) were dogs and 12.7% (103/808) were cats. Among the neonates admitted, 57.3% (463/808) came from emergency c-sections due to dystocia, 8.7% (71/808) cane from vaginal deliveries with obstetric maneuvers due to dystocia, and 34% (274/808) were admitted for clinical care due to neonatal conditions. Among the neonates that came from emergency c-sections and vaginal deliveries, 47.3% (253/534) was born in respiratory distress due to severe hypoxia or persistent apnea and required resuscitation procedure, such as the Jen Chung acupuncture point (VG26), oxygen therapy with mask, pulmonary expansion with resuscitator, heart massages and administration of emergency medication, such as epinephrine. On the other hand, in the neonatal clinical care, the main conditions and alterations observed in the newborns were omphalophlebitis, toxic milk syndrome, neonatal conjunctivitis, swimmer puppy syndrome, neonatal hemorrhagic syndrome, pneumonia, trauma, low weight at birth, prematurity, congenital malformations (cleft palate, cleft lip, hydrocephaly, anasarca, vascular anomalies in the heart, anal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocele, among others), neonatal sepsis and other local and systemic bacterial infections, viral infections (feline respiratory complex, parvovirus, canine distemper, canine infectious traqueobronchitis), parasitical infections (Toxocara spp., Ancylostoma spp., Strongyloides spp., Cystoisospora spp., Babesia spp. and Giardia spp.) and fungal infections (dermatophytosis by Microsporum canis). The most common clinical presentation observed was the neonatal triad (hypothermia, hypoglycemia and dehydration), affecting 74.6% (603/808) of the patients. The mortality rate among the neonates was 10.5% (85/808). Being knowledgeable about neonatology is essential for veterinarians to provide adequate care for these patients in the clinical routine. Adding neonatology to college curriculums, improving the dissemination of information on the subject, and providing annual training in neonatology for veterinarians and employees are important to improve immediate care and reduce the mortality rates.

Keywords: Neonatal, neonatal care, conditions, puppies

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7 Incidence of Orphans Neonatal Puppies Attend in Veterinary Hospital – Causes, Consequences and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Orphaned is a risk factor for mortality in newborns since it is a condition with total or partial absence of maternal care that is essential for neonatal survival, including nursing (nutrition, the transference of passive immunity and hydration), warmth, urination, and defecation stimuli, and protection. The most common causes of mortality in orphans are related to lack of assistance, handling mistakes and infections. This study aims to describe the orphans rates in neonatal puppies, the main causes, and the mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. The orphans rate was 43.4% (319/735) of all neonates included, and the main causes for orphaned were related to maternal agalactia/hypogalactia (23.5%, 75/319); numerous litter (15.7%, 50/319), toxic milk syndrome due to maternal mastitis (14.4%, 46/319), absence of suction/weak neonate (12.2%, 39/319), maternal disease (9.4%, 30/319), cleft palate/lip (6.3%, 20/319), maternal death (5.9%, 19/319), prematurity (5.3%, 17/319), rejection/failure in maternal instinct (3.8%, 12/319) and abandonment by the owner/separation of mother and neonate (3.5%, 11/319). The main consequences of orphaned observed in the admitted neonates were hypoglycemia, hypothermia, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, wasting syndrome, failure in the transference of passive immunity, infections and sepsis, which happened due to failure of identifying the problem early, lack of adequate assistance, negligence and handling mistakes by the owner. The total neonatal mortality rate was 8% (59/735) and the neonatal mortality rate among orphans was 18.5% (59/319). The orphaned and mortality rates were considered high, but even higher rates may be observed in locations without adequate neonatal assistance and owner orientation. The survival of these patients is related to constant monitoring of the litter, early diagnosis and assistance, and the implementation of effective handling for orphans. Understanding the correct handling for neonates and instructing the owners regarding proper handling are essential to minimize the consequences of orphaned and the mortality rates.

Keywords: neonatal care, Orphans, puppies, newborn dogs

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6 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

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5 Treatment of Isosporiasis in Neonate Dogs – Case Report

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Isosporiasis is an affliction caused by coccidial protozoa belonging to genera Isospora spp. or Cystoisospora spp., which may parasitize the small and large intestines of dogs, of which neonates and young animals present higher risk of infection. This study aims at reporting a case of isosporiasis in neonate Pitbull dogs, as well as the diagnosis and treatment. Seven Pitbull puppies were admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with history of yellowish diarrhea without mucus or blood for the past two days. The animals were five days old. The history of the mother, a primiparous two-year-old, revealed that she was properly vaccinated, not de-wormed and did not present diarrhea. The clinical examination revealed that the neonates weighted between 308 and 360 grams, and presented normal reflexes, moderate dehydration, body temperatures between 36.8 and 37.2 ºC, blood sugar between 103 and 124 mg/dL and normal appetite. A full blood count and a parasitology assay were performed to aid in the diagnosis. The full blood count detected eosinophilia, without any other relevant alterations. The parasitology assay (Willis-Molly & Faust) revealed the presence of Cystoisospora spp. The treatment was instituted with heated fluid therapy with Ringer’s Lactate (4 mL/100 g, subcutaneous) and antibiotic therapy with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (15 mg/kg, orally) every 12 hours for ten days. The mother and other dogs that came in contact with the newborns were also treated. The environment was disinfected for 10 minutes with 1.6% quaternary ammonium. After 10 days, the newborns presented normal clinical signs and no alterations in the full blood count. Isosporiasis is an affliction with high mortality rates in litters that should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible to increase the survival rates in these patients.

Keywords: Neonatal Infection, Diarrhea, puppies, Cystoisospora spp

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4 Case Report on Sepsis by Alpha-Hemolytic Streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica in Neonate Dogs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic response of acute infection by bacteria that may lead to high mortality in a litter. This study aims to report a case of sepsis by alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica in neonate dogs. A pregnant, mixed-breed bitch at approximately the 60th day of pregnancy was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and subjected to a c-section due to uterine atony and fetuses no heartbeats on the ultrasound examination. The mother presented leukopenia of 1.6 thousand leukocytes, and there was no other information regarding previous clinical history. Among the offspring, four were stillborn, and five were born alive. On clinical examination, neonates weighed between 312 and 384 grams. Reflexes were present, and the newborn's body temperature was between 89.9 ºF and 96.4 ºF. Neonates also presented clinical signs of neonatal infection: omphalitis, abdomen, and extremities with cyanotic color, hematuria, and diarrhea (meconium). Complementary tests revealed leukopenia. The presence of alpha hemolytic streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica was revealed in the bacterial culture. The bacteria were sensitive to cephalosporins and penicillin on the antibiogram. Treatment for sepsis was instituted with the drug ceftriaxone, at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram, administered intravenous (jugular vein). Subsequently administered subcutaneous, every 12 hours, for seven days. Heated fluid therapy was performed, with Ringer lactate, at a dose of 4 ml per 100 grams of weight, intravenous. Heating measures were instituted. Blood plasma was also administered, at a dose of 2 mL per 100 grams of weight, administered subcutaneous, as a source of passive immunity. A maternal milk substitute was instituted, and lactation was discontinued since the mother was unable to nurse due to the infection. The mother was neutered during the c-section and treated with ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg). After seven days, the newborns presented normal clinical signs and no alterations in the hemogram. Early diagnosis and intervention were essential for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: Bacteria, Neonatal Infection, Newborn, puppies

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3 A Case Report on Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Pugs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal conjunctivitis, or ophthalmia, is an infection of the conjunctiva or cornea before opening the eyelids. It is believed that immunodeficiency contributes to the development of the condition. This study aims at reporting a case of ophthalmia neonatorum in a dog, in addition to its diagnosis and treatment. A litter of five pug neonates was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with complaints of ocular secretion. The neonates were five days old. The clinical examination revealed that three newborns presented swelling in the ocular region and a purulent secretion in the medial corner of the eye that was exerting pressure on the ocular globes, which are compatible with the description of this disease. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical signs and bacterial culture of the secretion, which revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus sp. The laboratory assays did not reveal any alterations. The treatment was instituted gently, opening the eyelids early and cleaning the purulent ocular secretion with saline solution. An ophthalmic ointment with retinol, amino acids, methionine, and chloramphenicol (Epitezan®) was prescribed four times a day for seven days. Blood plasma (2 mL/100 g) was administered subcutaneously because bacterial infections in neonates may represent a failure in the transference of passive immunity. A more thorough cleaning of the environment was also recommended. Neonatal conjunctivitis has a simple diagnosis and treatment. If not treated early, it can evolve to adherence of the eyelids to the cornea, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea. Therefore, the prognosis is favorable as long as the condition is diagnosed early, and the treatment is instituted quickly.

Keywords: Neonatal Infection, Newborn, ophthalmia neonatorum, puppy

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2 A Case Report on Therapeutic Approach in Cases of Anasarca in Neonates Dogs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Anasarca is generalized congenital edema that is often lethal. The condition is transmitted hereditarily and is autosomal dominant, with a racial predisposition in French Bulldogs and English Bulldogs. This study aims at reporting a case of anasarca treatment in neonates. The fetuses of a one year and six months old, primiparous English Bulldog mother were diagnosed with anasarca during an ultrasound examination performed at the 55th day of pregnancy and, therefore, an elective cesarean section was scheduled to prevent fetal dystocia. At birth, all puppies presented anasarca, and one of the six was stillborn. The newborns presented cyanosis, dyspnea, bradycardia, absent reflexes, low vitality scores (3/10), and hypothermia ( < 32ºC). The weight of the puppies at the time of birth varied between 347 and 373 grams, about 100 grams above the average weight estimated for the breed. Immediate neonatal care was applied with oxygen therapy via a mask, aminophylline (0.2 ml/100 g/PV/sublingual), and slow heating. After 10 minutes, there was a significant improvement in the neonatal parameters. The anasarca was treated with the drug furosemide, administered subcutaneously, at a dose of 0.2 mg per 100 grams of weight, every three hours. The stimulation for urination of newborns was performed every 30 minutes, and weight loss was monitored every 30 minutes. Five grams of potassium chloride were administered orally for every 30 grams of weight loss to counterbalance the loss of potassium caused by the diuretic medication. After 15 hours, the neonates reached the ideal weight for the breed, around 209 to 230 grams. In total, four neonates received five doses of furosemide, while one received six doses. The puppies are currently ten months old, healthy and neutered. Anasarca should not be ignored and is considered potentially lethal and an indication for euthanasia in all cases. Early intervention is of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: puppies, Walrus syndrome, congenital edema, water puppy syndrome

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1 Effects of Umbilical Cord Clamping on Puppies Neonatal Vitality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

In veterinary medicine, the standard procedure during a caesarian section is clamping the umbilical cord immediately after birth. In human neonates, when the umbilical cord is kept intact after birth, blood continues to flow from the cord to the newborn, but this procedure may prove to be difficult in dogs due to the shorter umbilical cord and the number of newborns in the litter. However, a possible detachment of the placenta while keeping the umbilical cord intact may make the residual blood to flow to the neonate. This study compared the effects on neonatal vitality between clamping and no clamping the umbilical cord of dogs born through cesarean section, assessing them through Apgar and reflex scores. Fifty puppies delivered from 16 bitches were randomly allocated to receive clamping of the umbilical cord immediately (n=25) or to not receive the clamping until breathing (n=25). The neonates were assessed during the first five min of life and once again 10 min after the first assessment. The differences observed between the two moments were significant (p < 0.01) for both the Apgar and reflex scores. The differences observed between the groups (clamped vs. not clamped) were not significant for the Apgar score in the 1st moment (p=0.1), but the 2nd moment was significantly (p < 0.01) in the group not clamped, as well as significant (p < 0.05) for the reflex score in the 1st moment and 2nd moment (p < 0.05), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the not clamped group. The differences observed between the moments (1st vs. 2nd) of each group as significant (p < 0.01), revealing higher neonatal vitality in the 2nd moments. In the no clamping group, after removing the neonates together with the umbilical cord and the placenta, we observed that the umbilical cords were full of blood at the time of birth and later became whitish and collapsed, demonstrating the blood transfer. The results suggest that keeping the umbilical cord intact for at least three minutes after the onset breathing is not detrimental and may contribute to increase neonate vitality in puppies delivered by cesarean section.

Keywords: cesarean section, APGAR score, puppy vitality, newborn dog

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