Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Abstracts

3 Efficacy and Safety of Eucalyptus for Relief Cough Symptom: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Ladda Her, Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit

Abstract:

Cough is the common symptom of the respiratory tract infections or non-infections; the duration of cough indicates a classification and severity of disease. Herbal medicines can be used as the alternative to drugs for relief of cough symptoms from acute and chronic disease. Eucalyptus was used for reducing cough with evidences suggesting it has an active role in reduction of airway inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for relief of cough symptom in respiratory disease. Method: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, CINAHL, Springer, Science direct, ProQuest, and THAILIS databases. From its inception until 01/02/2019 for randomized control trials. We follow for the efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for reducing cough. Methodological quality was evaluated by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; two reviewers in our team screened eligibility and extracted data. Result: Six studies were included for the review and five studies were included in the meta-analysis, there were 1.911 persons including children (n: 1) and adult (n: 5) studies; for study in children and adult were between 1 and 80 years old, respectively. Eucalyptus was used as mono herb (n: 2) and in combination with other herbs form (n: 4). All of the studies with eucalyptus were compared for efficacy and safety with placebo or standard treatment, Eucalyptus dosage form in studies included capsules, spray, and syrup. Heterogeneity was 32.44 used random effect model (I² = 1.2%, χ² = 1.01; P-value = 0.314). The efficacy of eucalyptus was showed a reduced cough symptom statistically significant (n = 402, RR: 1.40, 95%CI [1.19, 1.65], P-value < 0.0001) when compared with placebo. Adverse events (AEs) were reported mild to moderate intensity with mostly gastrointestinal symptom. The methodological quality of the included trials was overall poor. Conclusion: Eucalyptus appears to be beneficial and safe for relieving in respiratory diseases focus on cough frequency. The evidence was inconclusive due to limited quality trial. Well-designed trials for evaluating the effectiveness in humans, the effectiveness for reducing cough symptom in human is needed. Eucalyptus had safety as monotherapy or in combination with other herbs.

Keywords: Herbal Medicine, Meta-analysis, Eucalyptus, systematic review, cough, cineole

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2 Application of Discrete-Event Simulation in Health Technology Assessment: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Using Real-World Evidence in Thailand

Authors: Khachen Kongpakwattana, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Abstract:

Background: Decision-analytic models for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been advanced to discrete-event simulation (DES), in which individual-level modelling of disease progression across continuous severity spectra and incorporation of key parameters such as treatment persistence into the model become feasible. This study aimed to apply the DES to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment for AD in Thailand. Methods: A dataset of Thai patients with AD, representing unique demographic and clinical characteristics, was bootstrapped to generate a baseline cohort of patients. Each patient was cloned and assigned to donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine or no treatment. Throughout the simulation period, the model randomly assigned each patient to discrete events including hospital visits, treatment discontinuation and death. Correlated changes in cognitive and behavioral status over time were developed using patient-level data. Treatment effects were obtained from the most recent network meta-analysis. Treatment persistence, mortality and predictive equations for functional status, costs (Thai baht (THB) in 2017) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were derived from country-specific real-world data. The time horizon was 10 years, with a discount rate of 3% per annum. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated based on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB/QALY gained (4,994 US$/QALY gained) in Thailand. Results: Under a societal perspective, only was the prescription of donepezil to AD patients with all disease-severity levels found to be cost-effective. Compared to untreated patients, although the patients receiving donepezil incurred a discounted additional costs of 2,161 THB, they experienced a discounted gain in QALY of 0.021, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 138,524 THB/QALY (4,062 US$/QALY). Besides, providing early treatment with donepezil to mild AD patients further reduced the ICER to 61,652 THB/QALY (1,808 US$/QALY). However, the dominance of donepezil appeared to wane when delayed treatment was given to a subgroup of moderate and severe AD patients [ICER: 284,388 THB/QALY (8,340 US$/QALY)]. Introduction of a treatment stopping rule when the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score goes below 10 to a mild AD cohort did not deteriorate the cost-effectiveness of donepezil at the current treatment persistence level. On the other hand, none of the AD medications was cost-effective when being considered under a healthcare perspective. Conclusions: The DES greatly enhances real-world representativeness of decision-analytic models for AD. Under a societal perspective, treatment with donepezil improves patient’s quality of life and is considered cost-effective when used to treat AD patients with all disease-severity levels in Thailand. The optimal treatment benefits are observed when donepezil is prescribed since the early course of AD. With healthcare budget constraints in Thailand, the implementation of donepezil coverage may be most likely possible when being considered starting with mild AD patients, along with the stopping rule introduced.

Keywords: Cost-effectiveness analysis, Health Technology Assessment, alzheimer's disease, Discrete Event Simulation

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1 A Real-World Evidence Analysis of Associations between Costs, Quality of Life and Disease-Severity Indicators of Alzheimer’s Disease in Thailand

Authors: Khachen Kongpakwattana, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Orapitchaya Krairit, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul, Devi Mohan, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Abstract:

Background: Although an increase in the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is evident worldwide, knowledge of costs and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) associated with AD in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is still lacking. We, therefore, aimed to collect real-world cost and HR-QoL data, and investigate their associations with multiple disease-severity indicators among AD patients in Thailand. Methods: We recruited AD patients aged ≥ 60 years accompanied by their caregivers at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. A one-time structured interview was conducted to collect disease-severity indicators, HR-QoL and caregiving information using standardized tools. The hospital’s database was used to retrieve healthcare resource utilization occurred over 6 months preceding the interview date. Costs were annualized and stratified based on cognitive status. Generalized linear models were employed to evaluate determinants of costs and HR-QoL. Results: Among 148 community-dwelling patients, average annual total societal costs of AD care were 8,014 US$ [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 7,295 US$ - 8,844 US$] per patient. Total costs of patients with severe stage (9,860 US$; 95% CI: 8,785 US$ - 11,328 US$) were almost twice as high as those of mild stage (5,524 US$; 95% CI: 4,649 US$ - 6,593 US$). The major cost driver was direct medical costs, particularly those incurred by AD prescriptions. Functional status was the strongest determinant for both total costs and patient’s HR-QoL (p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our real-world findings suggest the distinct major cost driver which results from expensive AD treatment, emphasizing the demand for country-specific cost evidence. Increases in cognitive and functional status are significantly associated with decreases in total costs of AD care and improvement on patient’s HR-QoL.

Keywords: Health-related quality of life, alzheimer's disease, costs, associations, disease-severity indicators

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