C. C. Okafor

Publications

1 Comparative Study of Pasting Properties of High Fibre Plantain Based Flour Intended for Diabetic Food (Fufu)

Authors: C. C. Okafor, E. E. Ugwu

Abstract:

A comparative study on the feasibility of producing instant high fibre plantain flour for diabetic fufu by blending soy residence with different plantain (Musa spp) varieties (Horn, false Horn and French), all sieved at 60 mesh, mixed in ratio of 60:40 was analyzed for their passing properties using standard analytical method. Results show that VIIIS60 had the highest peak viscosity (303.75 RVU), Trough value (182.08 RVU), final viscosity (284.50 RVU), and lowest in breakdown viscosity (79.58 RVU), set back value (88.17 RVU), peak time (4.36min), pasting temperature (81.18°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. VIS60 had the lowest in peak viscosity (192.25 RVU), Trough value (112.67 RVU), final viscosity (211.92 RVU), but highest in breakdown viscosity (121.61 RVU), peak time (4.66min) pasting temperature (82.35°C), and differed significantly (p <0.05), from other samples. VIIS60 had the medium peak viscosity (236.67 RVU), Trough value (116.58 RVU), Break down viscosity (120:08 RVU), set back viscosity (167.92 RVU), peak time (4.39min), pasting temp (81.44°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. High final viscosity and low set back values of the French variety with soy residue blended at 60 mesh particle size recommends this french variety and fibre composition as optimum for production of instant plantain soy residue flour blend for production of diabetic fufu. 

Keywords: plantain, soy residue pasting properties particle size

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Abstracts

3 Effect of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaves on Wheat Offal Replacement for Chicks Feed Production

Authors: C. C. Okafor, T. M. Ezeh

Abstract:

The effect of addition of sweet potato leaves in replacement of wheat offal in the production of broiler chicks feed was studied. 72 day-old marshal strain chicks were used and brooded for two weeks with a normal commercial feed in Nigeria called top feed and weighed separately at the end of the two weeks, complete randomized design (CRD) was used. The weighed broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated to twice with eighteen birds per replicate. The four dietary treatment identified as T1, T2, T3 and T4. T1 served as control diet with 21% crude protein content, while T2 was prepared with Enzyme and in T3 and T4, wheat offal was replaced with sweet potato leaves and in T4 with inclusion of enzyme. Growth performance was studied using the following daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed efficiency. The result in daily weight gain showed that chicks fed with T2 feed had the highest weight gain (93.75) while chicks fed with T3 had the least weight gain of (34.5 gm). In daily feed intake chicks fed with T4 fed more (53.06 gm) than chicks fed with T2 (51.08 gm). In feed efficiency T3 had the highest value of 30% while the T2 had the least efficiency of 22%. There was no significant difference (Pā‰„ 0.05) in all the three parameter tested. Sweet potato leaves can replace wheat offal in broiler feed production without any adverse effect on the growth performance.

Keywords: diet, dietary, broiler, potato leaves, wheat offal

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2 Effect of Variety and Fibre Type on Functional and organoleptic Properties of Plantain Flour Intended for Food "Fufu"

Authors: C. C. Okafor

Abstract:

The effect of different varieties of plantain (Horn, false horn and French) and fibre types (soy bean residue, cassava sievette and rice bran) on functional and organoleptic properties of plantain-based flour was assessed. Horn, false horn french were processed by washing, peeling with knife, slicing into 3mm thickness and steam blanched at 80ā„ƒ for 5minutes, oven dried at 65ā„ƒ for 48 hours and milled into flours with attrition mill, sieved with 60 mesh sieve, separately. Fibre sources were processed, milled and fractionated into 60, 40 & 20 mesh sizes. Both flours were blended as 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. Results obtained indicated that water absorption capacity is highest (2.68) in French plantain variety irrespective of the fibre type used. And in all variety tested the swelling capacity is highest (2.93) when the plantain flour is blended with soy residue (SR) and lowest (1.25) when blended with rice brain (RB). The results show that there is significant variety and fibre type interaction effect at (P < : 0.05). Again the results showed that texture mold ability and overall acceptability were best (7.00) when soy residue was used where as addition of rice bran into plantain flour resulted in fufu with poor texture. This trend was observed in all the verities of plantain tested and in all of the particle size of flour. Using cassava serviette also yield fufu similar to that produced with soy residue in all the parameter tested (mold ability, texture and overall acceptability. Generally, plantain flours from french and false horn yielded better quality fufu in terms of texture mold ability, overall acceptability, irrespective of the fibre type used.

Keywords: Functional, Variety, particle size, organoleptic, sieve mesh

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1 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Proximate, Functional, Sensory, and Nutritional Properties of Weaning Foods Formulated from Maize (Zea mays) and Soybean (Glycine max) Flour Blends

Authors: C. C. Okafor, C. O. Agu

Abstract:

Maize and soybean flours were produced using different methods of processing which include fermentation (FWF), roasting (RWF) and malting (MWF). Products from the different methods were mixed in the ratio 60:40 maize/soybean, respectively. These composites mixed with other ingredients such as sugar, vegetable oil, vanilla flavour and vitamin mix were analyzed for proximate composition, physical/functional, sensory and nutritional properties. The results for the protein content ranged between 6.25% and 16.65% with sample RWF having the highest value. Crude fibre values ranged from 3.72 to 10.0%, carbohydrate from 58.98% to 64.2%, ash from 1.27 to 2.45%. Physical and functional properties such as bulk density, wettability, gelation capacity have values between 0.74 and 0.76g/ml, 20.33 and 46.33 min and 0.73 to 0.93g/ml, respectively. On the sensory quality colour, flavour, taste, texture and general acceptability were determined. In terms of colour and flavour there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) while the values for taste ranged between 4.89 and 7.1 l, texture 5.50 to 8.38 and general acceptability 6.09 and 7.89. Nutritionally there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sample RWF and the control in all parameters considered. Samples FWF and MWF showed significantly (P < 0.5) lower values in all parameters determined. In the light of the above findings, roasting method is highly recommend in the production of weaning foods.

Keywords: Fermentation, Wettability, malting, ratio, roasting

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