S. Pradhan

Publications

1 Analyzing Current Transformers Saturation Characteristics for Different Connected Burden Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However, when the power system experiences an abnormal situation leading to huge current flow, then this huge current is proportionally injected to the protection and metering circuit. Since the protection and metering equipment’s are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore, during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effect of burden on the Accuracy Limiting factor/ Instrument security factor of current transformers and the change in saturation characteristics of the CT’s. The response of the CT to varying levels of overcurrent at different connected burden will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: accuracy limiting factor, burden, instrument security factor, saturation characteristics, current transformer

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Abstracts

5 SOCS3 Reverses Multidrug Resistance by Inhibiting MDR1 in Mammary Cell Carcinoma

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, T. Dasmohapatra

Abstract:

Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS3), a newly indentified anti-apoptotic molecule is a downstream effecter of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras signalling pathway. Current study has uncovered that SOCS3 may have wide and imperative capacities, particularly because of its close correlation with malignant tumors. To investigate the impact of SOCS3 on MDR, we analyzed the expression of P-gp and SOCS3 by immune-histochemistry and found there was positive correlation between them. At that point we effectively interfered with RNA translation by the contamination of siRNA of SOCS3 into MCF7/ADM breast cancer cell lines through a lentivirus, and the expression of the target gene was significantly inhibited. After RNAi the drug resistance was reduced altogether and the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in MCF7/ADM cell lines demonstrated a significant decrease. Likewise the expression of P53 protein increased in a statistically significant manner (p ≤ 0.01) after RNAi exposure. Moreover, flowcytometry analysis uncovers that cell cycle and anti-apoptotic enhancing capacity of cells changed after RNAi treatment. These outcomes proposed SOCS3 may take part in breast cancer MDR by managing MDR1 and P53 expression, changing cell cycle and enhancing the anti-apoptotic ability.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, RNA Interference, multidrug resistance, MDR1 gene, SOCS3gene

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4 Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Inhibits by INT3 & Quercetin in MCF7 Cell Lines

Authors: D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Objectives: Imperviousness gainst estrogen treatments is a noteworthy reason for infection backslide and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast diseases. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal builds the reliance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 flagging. Here, we researched the commitment of Quercetin and INT3 motioning in endocrine-safe breast tumor cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine treatments safe (ETR) breast tumor: Tamoxifen-safe (TamR) and long haul estrogen-denied (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the transitory and intrusive limit of these cells by Transwell cells. Articulation of epithelial to mesenchymal move (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by constant PCR and western smudge investigation. Besides, we tried in-vitro hostile to Quercetin monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) and Gamma Secretase Inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT inversion remedial specialists. At last, we created stable Quercetin overexpressing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT components and reaction to Tamoxifen. Results: We found that ETR cells procured an Epithelial to Mesenchymal move (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we distinguished more elevated amount of INT3 however lower levels of INT1 and INT3 proposing a change to motioning through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Against Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were powerful in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 pivot and in part repressing the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell relocation and attack were weakened and the immature microorganism like populace was essentially decreased. Hereditary hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. At long last, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to Tamoxifen by INT3 initiation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives intrusive conduct. Hostile to Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen articulation of EMT particles decreasing cell obtrusiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates Tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and INT3 warrants further clinical Correlation as substantial restorative methodologies in endocrine-safe breast.

Keywords: Endocrine, quercetin, INT3, epithelial, mesenchymal, MCF7

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3 Analyzing Current Transformers Saturation Characteristics for Different Connected Burden Using LabVIEW Data Acquisition Tool

Authors: D. Subedi, S. Pradhan

Abstract:

Current transformers are an integral part of power system because it provides a proportional safe amount of current for protection and measurement applications. However when the power system experiences an abnormal situation leading to huge current flow, then this huge current is proportionally injected to the protection and metering circuit. Since the protection and metering equipment’s are designed to withstand only certain amount of current with respect to time, these high currents pose a risk to man and equipment. Therefore during such instances, the CT saturation characteristics have a huge influence on the safety of both man and equipment and also on the reliability of the protection and metering system. This paper shows the effect of burden on the Accuracy Limiting factor/ Instrument security factor of current transformers and also the change in saturation characteristics of the CT’s. The response of the CT to varying levels of overcurrent at different connected burden will be captured using the data acquisition software LabVIEW. Analysis is done on the real time data gathered using LabVIEW. Variation of current transformer saturation characteristics with changes in burden will be discussed.

Keywords: Current Transformer, accuracy limiting factor, burden, instrument security factor, saturation characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
2 Quercetin and INT3 Inhibits Endocrine Therapy Resistance and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: S. Pradhan, D. Pradhan, G. Tripathy

Abstract:

Anti-estrogen treatment resistant is a noteworthy reason for disease relapse and mortality in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)- positive breast cancers. Tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal increases the dependance of breast malignancy cells on INT3 signaling. Here, we researched the contribution of Quercetin and INT3 signaling in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells. Methods: We utilized two models of endocrine therapies resistant (ETR-) breast cancer: tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) and long term estrogen-deprived (LTED) MCF7 cells. We assessed the migratory and invasive limit of these cells by Transwell assay. Expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) controllers and in addition INT3 receptors and targets were assessed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Besides, we tried in vitro anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and gamma secretase inhibitors (GSIs) as potential EMT reversal therapeutic agents. At last, we created stable Quercetin over expessing MCF7 cells and assessed their EMT features and response to tamoxifen. Results:We found that ETR cells acquired an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and showed expanded levels of Quercetin and INT3 targets. Interestingly, we detected higher level of INT3 however lower levels of INT31 and INT32 proposing a switch to targeting through distinctive INT3 receptors after obtaining of resistance. Anti-Quercetin monoclonal antibodies and the GSI PF03084014 were effective in obstructing the Quercetin/INT3 axis and in part inhibiting the EMT process. As a consequence of this, cell migration and invasion were weakened and the stem cell like population was considerably decreased. Genetic hushing of Quercetin and INT3 prompted proportionate impacts. Finally, stable overexpression of Quercetin was adequate to make MCF7 lethargic to tamoxifen by INT3 activation. Conclusions: ETR cells express abnormal amounts of Quercetin and INT3, whose actuation eventually drives invasive conduct. Anti-Quercetin mAbs and GSI PF03084014 lessen expression of EMT molecules decreasing cellular invasiveness. Quercetin overexpression instigates tamoxifen resistance connected to obtaining of EMT phenotype. Our discovering propose that focusing on Quercetin and/or INT3 warrants further clinical assessment as substantial therapeutic methodologies in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Keywords: quercetin, INT3, mesenchymal transition, MCF7 breast cancer cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1 Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Strongly Rotating Rarefied Gas Flows

Authors: S. Pradhan, V. Kumaran

Abstract:

Centrifugal gas separation processes effect separation by utilizing the difference in the mole fraction in a high speed rotating cylinder caused by the difference in molecular mass, and consequently the centrifugal force density. These have been widely used in isotope separation because chemical separation methods cannot be used to separate isotopes of the same chemical species. More recently, centrifugal separation has also been explored for the separation of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. The efficiency of separation is critically dependent on the secondary flow generated due to temperature gradients at the cylinder wall or due to inserts, and it is important to formulate accurate models for this secondary flow. The widely used Onsager model for secondary flow is restricted to very long cylinders where the length is large compared to the diameter, the limit of high stratification parameter, where the gas is restricted to a thin layer near the wall of the cylinder, and it assumes that there is no mass difference in the two species while calculating the secondary flow. There are two objectives of the present analysis of the rarefied gas flow in a rotating cylinder. The first is to remove the restriction of high stratification parameter, and to generalize the solutions to low rotation speeds where the stratification parameter may be O (1), and to apply for dissimilar gases considering the difference in molecular mass of the two species. Secondly, we would like to compare the predictions with molecular simulations based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for rarefied gas flows, in order to quantify the errors resulting from the approximations at different aspect ratios, Reynolds number and stratification parameter. In this study, we have obtained analytical and numerical solutions for the secondary flows generated at the cylinder curved surface and at the end-caps due to linear wall temperature gradient and external gas inflow/outflow at the axis of the cylinder. The effect of sources of mass, momentum and energy within the flow domain are also analyzed. The results of the analytical solutions are compared with the results of DSMC simulations for three types of forcing, a wall temperature gradient, inflow/outflow of gas along the axis, and mass/momentum input due to inserts within the flow. The comparison reveals that the boundary conditions in the simulations and analysis have to be matched with care. The commonly used diffuse reflection boundary conditions at solid walls in DSMC simulations result in a non-zero slip velocity as well as a temperature slip (gas temperature at the wall is different from wall temperature). These have to be incorporated in the analysis in order to make quantitative predictions. In the case of mass/momentum/energy sources within the flow, it is necessary to ensure that the homogeneous boundary conditions are accurately satisfied in the simulations. When these precautions are taken, there is excellent agreement between analysis and simulations, to within 10 %, even when the stratification parameter is as low as 0.707, the Reynolds number is as low as 100 and the aspect ratio (length/diameter) of the cylinder is as low as 2, and the secondary flow velocity is as high as 0.2 times the maximum base flow velocity.

Keywords: rotating flows, generalized onsager and carrier-Maslen model, DSMC simulations, rarefied gas flow

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