Shahid Iqbal


3 Sustainable Improvement in Soil Properties and Maize Performance by Organic Fertilizers at Different Levels

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Haroon Z. Khan, Muhammad Arif


A sustainable agricultural system involving the improvement in soil properties and crop performance cannot be developed without organic fertilizer use. The effects of poultry manure compost (PMC) and pressmud compost (PrMC) at different levels on improving the soil properties and maize performance has not been yet described by any study comprehensively. Thus, field experiments (2011 and 2012) were conducted at Agronomy Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (31°26'5" N and 73°4'6" E) in sandy loam soil to determine the improvement in soil properties and maize performance due to application of PMC and PrMC each at five different levels (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1). A control (unamended) treatment was also included for comparison. The results indicated that performance of PMC levels was superior to PrMC levels. Increasing both composts levels improved soil properties, maize growth, and stover yield. Results showed that during both years’ highest rates of PMC i.e. 10 and 8 t ha-1 improved the soil properties: ECe, pH, inorganic N, OM, and WHC higher than other treatments. While, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also significantly increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), and stover yield. Similarly, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also improved the grain protein content, but contrarily, grain oil was lowest for 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC during both years. Moreover, in both years highest gross and net income, and benefit cost ratio was also achieved by 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC. It is concluded that PMC at rate of 10 and 8 t ha-1 sustainably improved soil properties and maize performance.

Keywords: Growth, Soil, Yield, compost, maize

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2 Growth and Yield Potential of Quinoa genotypes on Salt Affected Soils

Authors: Shahzad M. A. Basra, Shahid Iqbal, Irfan Afzal, Hafeez-ur-Rehman


Quinoa a facultative halophyte crop plant is a new introduction in Pakistan due to its superior nutritional profile and its abiotic stress tolerance, especially against salinity. Present study was conducted to explore halophytic behavior of quinoa. Four quinoa genotypes (A1, A2, A7 and A9) were evaluated against high salinity (control, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mM). Evaluation was made on the basis of ionic analysis (Na+, K+ and K+: Na+ ratio in shoot) and root- shoot fresh and dry weight at four leaf stage. Seedling growth i.e. fresh and dry weight of shoot and root increased by 100 mM salinity and then growth decreased gradually with increasing salinity level in all geno types. Mineral analysis indicated that A2 and A7 have more tolerant behavior having low Na+ and high K+ ¬concentration as compared to A1 and A9. Same geno types as above were also evaluated against high salinity (control, 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS m-1) in pot culture during 2012-13. It was found that increase in salinity up to 10 dS m-1 the plant height, stem diameter and yield related traits increased but decreased with further increase in salinity. Same trend was observed in ionic contents. Maximum grain yield was achieved by A7 (100 g plant-1) followed by A2 (82 g plant-1) at salinity level 10 dS m-1. Next phase was carried out through field settings by using salt tolerant geno types (A2 and A7) at Crop Physiology Research Area Farm (non saline soil as control)/ Proka Farm (salt affected with EC up to 15 dS m-1), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhtiaan (SSRI) Farm (one normal as control and two salt affected fields with EC values up to 15 and 30 dS m-1) during 2013-14. Genotype A7 showed maximum growth and gave maximum yield (3200 kg ha-1) at Proka Farm which was statistically at par to the values of yield obtained on normal soils of Faisalabad. Geno type A7 also gave maximum yield 2800 kg ha-1 on normal field of Pindi bhtiaan followed by as obtained (2340) on salt problem field (15 dS m-1) of same location.

Keywords: genotype, Salinity, quinoa, halophyte

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1 Social Consequences of Male Migration on Women: An Evidence from Gujrat-Pakistan

Authors: Shahid Iqbal


It is observed that international migration is increased over a time period in all over the world counties and Pakistan is not escaped. It played a pivotal role in household economy and affecting the gender roles both positive and negative in the developing countries. A vast majority of males from Pakistan migrate to other countries in search of employment and income generating activities and their families left behind, particularly nuclear families are subjected to different social problems. In this scenario, most of the responsibilities lie on the female partners as they have to play the role of male as well as female for their children and household chores. Wives of some males feel loneliness, isolation and a sense of insecurity. Keeping in mind, these realities, this study aims to explore the social impact of husbands’ absentee ship on the lives of families left behind. Particularly, wives’ own experiences will be analyzed. This study will be carried out in the District Gujrat of Punjab Pakistan. Since this study will focus on observing the social impact of male’s migration on families, so, all the households that had at least one member abroad will be the potential respondents of the study. Purposes sampling technique will be used as method to locate the respondents. A focus group discussion will be conducted as a tool for the collection of data. Those women will be approached who are taking care of their families in the absence of their husbands for last three years. For the sake of analysis Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) will be applied and researcher will explore how participants make sense of their personal experience and social world.

Keywords: Pakistan, social consequences, male migration, left behind, absentee ship

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