Giorgi Chichinadze

Publications

1 Jalovchat Gabbroic Intrusive of the Caucasus: Petrological Study, Geochemical Peculiarities and Formation Conditions

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Nikoloz Maisuradze

Abstract:

The Jalovchat intrusive is built up of hornblende gabbros, gabbro-norites and norites. Within the intrusive hornblende-bearing gabbro-pegmatites are widespread. That is a coarse-grained rock with gigantic hornblende crystals. By its unusual composition, the Jalovchat intrusive has no analogue in the Caucasus. However, petrologically and geochemically, the intrusive rocks were studied insufficiently. For comprehensive investigations, the authors applied appropriate methodologies: Microscopic study of thin sections, petro- and geochemical analyses of the samples and also different petrogenic, rare and rare earth elements diagrams and spidergrams. Analytical study established that the Jalovchat intrusive by its composition corresponds mainly to the mid-ocean ridge basalts and according to geodynamic type belongs to the subduction type. In general, it is an anomalous phenomenon, as in the rocks of such composition crystallization of hornblende and especially of its gigantic crystals is atypical. The authors believe that the water-rich magma reservoir, which was necessary for the crystallization of gigantic hornblende crystals, appeared as a result of melting of water-rich mid-ocean ridge basaltic rocks during the subduction process in Bajocian time.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Petrology, genesis, The Caucasus, Gabbroic intrusive

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 354

Abstracts

6 Regional Metamorphism of the Loki Crystalline Massif Allochthonous Complex of the Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Irakli Javakhishvili

Abstract:

The Loki pre-Alpine crystalline massif crops out within the Caucasus region. The massif basement is represented by the Upper Devonian gneissose quartz-diorites, the Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic allochthonous complex, and different magmatites. Earlier, the metamorphic complex was considered as indivisible set represented by the series of different temperature metamorphits. The degree of metamorphism of separate parts of the complex is due to different formation conditions. This fact according to authors of the abstract was explained by the allochthonous-flaky structure of the complex. It was stated that the complex thrust over the gneissose quartz diorites before the intrusion of Sudetic granites. During the detailed mapping, the authors turned out that the metamorphism issues need to be reviewed and additional researches to be carried out. Investigations were accomplished by using the following methodologies: finding of key sections, a sampling of rocks, microscopic description of the material, analytical determination of elements in the rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and new interpretation of obtained data. According to the author’s recent data within the massif four tectonic plates: Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari, Moshevani and “mélange” overthrust sheets have been mapped. They differ from each other by composition, the degree of metamorphism and internal structure. It is confirmed that the initial rocks of the tectonic plates formed in different geodynamic conditions during overthrusting due to tectonic compression form a thick tectonic sheet. Based on the detailed laboratory investigations additional mineral assemblages were established, temperature limits were specified, and a renewed trend of metamorphism facies and subfacies was elaborated. The results are the following: 1. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The main rock-forming minerals are carbonate, chlorite, spinel, epidote, clinoptilolite, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, hornblende, albite, serpentine, tremolite, talc, garnet, and prehnite. Regional metamorphism of rocks corresponds to the greenschist facies lowest stage. 2. The Sapharlo-Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet metapelites are represented by chloritoid, chlorite, phengite, muscovite, biotite, garnet, ankerite, carbonate, and quartz. Metabasites containing actinolite, chlorite, plagioclase, calcite, epidote, albite, actinolitic hornblende and hornblende are also present. The degree of metamorphism corresponds to the greenschist high-temperature chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies. Later the rocks underwent the contact influence of Late Variscan granites. 3. The Moshevani overthrust sheet is represented mainly by metapelites and rarely by metabasites. Main rock-forming minerals of metapelites are muscovite, biotite, chlorite, quartz, andalusite, plagioclase, garnet and cordierite and of metabasites - plagioclase, green and blue-green hornblende, chlorite, epidote, actinolite, albite, and carbonate. Metamorphism level corresponds to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies as well. 4. The “mélange” overthrust sheet is built of different size rock fragments and blocks of Moshevani and Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheets. The degree of regional metamorphism of first and second overthrust sheets of the Loki massif corresponds to chlorite, biotite, and low-temperature garnet subfacies, but of the third overthrust sheet – to staurolite-andalusite subfacies of staurolite facies and partially to facies of biotite muscovite gneisses and hornfelse facies.

Keywords: Regional Metamorphism, The Caucasus, crystalline massif, mineral assemblages

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
5 Digital Geological Map of the Loki Crystalline Massif (The Caucasus) and Its Multi-Informative Explanatory Note

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Irakli Gamkrelidze, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Ketevan Tedliashvili, Tamara Tsamalashvili, Irakli Javakhishvili

Abstract:

The Caucasus is situated between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates and represents a component of the Mediterranean (Alpine-Himalayan) collision belt. The Loki crystalline massif crops out within one of the terranes of the Caucasus – Baiburt-Sevanian terrane. By the end of 2018, a digital geological map (1:50 000) of the Loki massif was compiled. The presented map is of great importance for the region since there is no large-scale geological map which reflects the present standards of the geological study of the massif up to the last time. The existing State Geological Map of the Loki massif is very outdated. A new map drown by using GIS (Geographic Information System) technology is loaded with multi-informative details that include: specified contours of geological units and separate tectonic scales, key mineral assemblages and facies of metamorphism, temperature conditions of metamorphism, ages of metamorphism events and the massif rocks, genetic-geodynamic types of magmatic rocks. Explanatory note, attached to the map includes the large specter of scientific information. It contains characterization of the geological setting, composition and petrogenetic and geodynamic models of the massif formation. To create a geological map of the Loki crystalline massif, appropriate methodologies were applied: a sampling of rocks, GIS technology-based mapping of geological units, microscopic description of the material, composition analysis of rocks, microprobe analysis of minerals and a new interpretation of obtained data. To prepare a digital version of the map the appropriated activities were held including the creation of a common database. Finally, the design was created that includes the elaboration of legend and the final visualization of the map. The results of the study presented in the explanatory note are given below. The autochthonous gneissose quartz diorites of normal alkalinity and sub-alkaline gabbro-diorites included in them belong to different phases of magmatism. They represent “igneous” granites corresponding to mixed mantle-crustal type granites. Four tectonic plates of the allochthonous metamorphic complex–Lower Gorastskali, Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari, Moshevani, and Lower Gorastskali differ from each other by structure and degree of metamorphism. The initial rocks of these plates are formed in different geodynamic conditions and during the Early Bretonian orogeny while overthrusting due to tectonic compression they form a thick tectonic sheet. The Lower Gorastskali overthrust sheet is a fragment of ophiolitic association corresponding to the Paleotethys oceanic crust. The protolith of the ophiolitic complex basites corresponds to the tholeiitic series of basalts. The Sapharlo–Lok-Jandari overthrust sheet is metapelites, metamorphosed in conditions of greenschist facies of regional metamorphism. The regional metamorphism of Moshevani overthrust sheet crystalline schists quartzites corresponds to a range from greenschist to hornfels facies. The “mélange” is built of rock fragments and blocks of above-mentioned overthrust sheets. Sub-alkaline and normal alkaline post-metamorphic granites of the Loki crystalline massif belong to “igneous” and rarely to “sialic” and “anorogenic” types of granites.

Keywords: The Caucasus, crystalline massif, digital geological map

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
4 Jalovchat Gabbroic Intrusive of the Caucasus: Petrological Study, Geochemical Peculiarities and Formation Conditions

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Nikoloz Maisuradze

Abstract:

The Jalovchat intrusive is built up of hornblende gabbros, gabbro-norites and norites. Within the intrusive hornblende-bearing gabbro-pegmatites are widespread. That is a coarse-grained rock with gigantic hornblende crystals. By its unusual composition, the Jalovchat intrusive has no analogue in the Caucasus. However, petrologically and geochemically, the intrusive rocks were studied insufficiently. For comprehensive investigations, the authors applied appropriate methodologies: Microscopic study of thin sections, petro- and geochemical analyses of the samples and also different petrogenic, rare and rare earth elements diagrams and spidergrams. Analytical study established that the Jalovchat intrusive by its composition corresponds mainly to the mid-ocean ridge basalts and according to geodynamic type belongs to the subduction type. In general, it is an anomalous phenomenon, as in the rocks of such composition crystallization of hornblende and especially of its gigantic crystals is atypical. The authors believe that the water-rich magma reservoir, which was necessary for the crystallization of gigantic hornblende crystals, appeared as a result of melting of water-rich mid-ocean ridge basaltic rocks during the subduction process in Bajocian time.

Keywords: The Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, petrogenesis, intrusive, petrogeochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
3 Petrogeochemistry of Hornblende-Bearing Gabbro Intrusive, the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Nikoloz Maisuradze

Abstract:

The Jalovchat gabbro intrusive is exposed on the northern and southern slopes of Main Range zone of the Greater Caucasus, on an area about 25km2. It is intruded in Precambrian crystalline schists and amphibolites intensively metamorphose them along the contact zone. The intrusive is represented by hornblende-bearing gabbro, gabbro-norites and norites including thin vein bodies of gabbro-pegmatites, anorthosites and micro-gabbros. Especially should be noted the veins of gabbro-pegmatites with the gigantic (up to 0.5m) hornblende crystals. From this point of view, the Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive is particularly interesting and by its unusual composition has no analog in the Caucasus overall. The comprehensive petrologic and geochemical study of the intrusive was carried out by the authors. The results of investigations are following. Amphiboles correspond to magnesiohastingsite and magnesiohornblende. In hastingsite and hornblende as a result of isovalent isomorphism of Fe2+ by Mg, content of the latter has been increased. By AMF and Na20+K diagrams the intrusive rocks correspond to tholeiitic basalts or to basalts close to it by composition. According to ACM-AMF double diagram the samples distributed in the fields of MORB and alkali cumulates. In TiO2/FeO+Fe2O3, Zr/Y-Zr and Ti-Cr/Ni diagrams and Ti-Cr-Y triangular diagram samples are arranged in the fields of island-arc and mid-oceanic basalts or along the trends reflecting mid-oceanic ridges or island arcs. K2O/TiO2 diagram shows that these rocks belong to normal and enriched MORB type. According to Th/Nb/Y ratio, the Jalovchat intrusive composition corresponds to depleted mantle, but by Sm/Y-Ce/Sm - to the MORB area. Th/Y and Nb/Y ratios coincide with the MORB composition, Th/Yb-Ta/Yb and La/Nb-Ti ratios correspond to N MORB, and Rb/Y and N/Y - to the lower crust formations. Exceptional are Ce/Pb-Ce and Nb/Th-Nb diagrams, showing the area of primitive mantle. Spidergrams are characterized by almost horizontal trend, weakly expressed Eu minimums and by a slight depletion of light REE. Similar are characteristic of typical tholeiit basalts. In comparison to MORB spidergrams, they are characterized by depletion of light REE. Their correlation to the spidergrams of Jalovchat intrusive proves that they are more depleted. The above cited points to the gradual depletion of mantle with the light REE in geological time. The RE and REE diagrams reveal unexpected regularity. In particular, petro-geochemical characteristics of Jalovchat gabbroid intrusive predominantly correspond to MORB, that usually is an anomalous phenomenon, since in ‘ophiolitic’ section magmatic formations represented mainly by gigantic prismatic hornblende-bearing gabbro and gabbro-pegmatite are not indicated. On the basis of petro-mineralogical and petro-geochemical data analysis, the authors consider that the Jalovchat intrusive belongs to the subduction geodynamic type. In the depleted mantle rich in water the MORB rock system has subducted, where the favorable conditions for crystallization of hornblende and especially for its gigantic crystals occurred. It is considered that the Jalovchat intrusive was formed in deep horizons of the Earth’s crust as a result of crystallization of water-bearing Bajocian basalt magma.

Keywords: The Greater Caucasus, gabbro-pegmatite, hornblende-bearing gabbro, petrogenesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
2 Petrogenetic Model of Formation of Orthoclase Gabbro of the Dzirula Crystalline Massif, the Caucasus

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Manana Togonidze

Abstract:

Orthoclase gabbro intrusive exposes in the Eastern part of the Dzirula crystalline massif of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent. It is intruded in the Baikal quartz-diorite gneisses as a stock-like body. The intrusive is characterized by heterogeneity of rock composition: variability of mineral content and irregular distribution of rock-forming minerals. The rocks are represented by pyroxenites, gabbro-pyroxenites and gabbros of different composition – K-feldspar, pyroxene-hornblende and biotite bearing varieties. Scientific views on the genesis and age of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive are considerably different. Based on the long-term pertogeochemical and geochronological investigations of the intrusive with such an extraordinary composition the authors came to the following conclusions. According to geological and geophysical data, it is stated that in the Saurian orogeny horizontal tectonic layering of the Earth’s crust of the Central Transcaucasian microcontinent took place. That is precisely this fact that explains the formation of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive. During the tectonic doubling of the Earth’s crust of the mentioned microcontinent thick tectonic nappes of mafic and sialic layers overlap the sialic basement (‘inversion’ layer). The initial magma of the intrusive was of high-temperature basite-ultrabasite composition, crystallization products of which are pyroxenites and gabbro-pyroxenites. Petrochemical data of the magma attest to its formation in the Upper mantle and partially in the ‘crustal astenolayer’. Then, a newly formed overheated dry magma with phenocrysts of clinopyrocxene and basic plagioclase intruded into the ‘inversion’ layer. From the new medium it was enriched by the volatile components causing the selective melting and as a result the formation of leucocratic quartz-feldspar material. At the same time in the basic magma intensive transformation of pyroxene to hornblende was going on. The basic magma partially mixed with the newly formed acid magma. These different magmas intruded first into the allochthonous basite layer without its significant transformation and then into the upper sialic layer and crystallized here at a depth of 7-10 km. By petrochemical data the newly formed leucocratic granite magma belongs to the S type granites, but the above mentioned mixed magma – to H (hybrid) type. During the final stage of magmatic processes the gabbroic rocks impregnated with high-temperature feldspar-bearing material forming anorthoclase or orthoclase. Thus, so called ‘orthoclase gabbro’ includes the rocks of various genetic groups: 1. protolith of gabbroic intrusive; 2. hybrid rock – K-feldspar gabbro and 3. leucocratic quartz-feldspar bearing rock. Petrochemical and geochemical data obtained from the hybrid gabbro and from the inrusive protolith differ from each other. For the identification of petrogenetic model of the orthoclase gabbro intrusive formation LA-ICP-MS- U-Pb zircon dating has been conducted in all three genetic types of gabbro. The zircon age of the protolith – mean 221.4±1.9 Ma and of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro – mean 221.9±2.2 Ma, records crystallization time of the intrusive, but the zircon age of quartz-feldspar bearing rocks – mean 323±2.9 Ma, as well as the inherited age (323±9, 329±8.3, 332±10 and 335±11 Ma) of hybrid K-feldspar gabbro corresponds to the formation age of Late Variscan granitoids widespread in the Dzirula crystalline massif.

Keywords: The Caucasus, isotope dating, orthoclase-bearing gabbro, petrogenetic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1 Petrology, Geochemistry and Formation Conditions of Metaophiolites of the Loki Crystalline Massif (the Caucasus)

Authors: Giorgi Beridze, Tamara Tsutsunava, Irakli Gamkrelidze, Giorgi Chichinadze, David Shengelia, Ketevan Tedliashvili, Tamara Tsamalashvili

Abstract:

The Loki crystalline massif crops out in the Caucasian region and the geological retrospective represent the northern marginal part of the Baiburt-Sevanian terrain (island arc), bordering with the Paleotethys oceanic basin in the north. The pre-Alpine basement of the massif is built up of Lower-Middle Paleozoic metamorphic complex (metasedimentary and metabasite rocks), Upper Devonian quartz-diorites and Late Variscan granites. Earlier metamorphic complex was considered as an indivisible set including suites with different degree of metamorphism. Systematic geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations of the massif’s rocks suggest the different conception on composition, structure and formation conditions of the massif. In particular, there are two main rock types in the Loki massif: the oldest autochthonous series of gneissic quartz-diorites and cutting them granites. The massif is flanked on its western side by a volcano-sedimentary sequence, metamorphosed to low-T facies. Petrologic, metamorphic and structural differences in this sequence prove the existence of a number of discrete units (overthrust sheets). One of them, the metabasic sheet represents the fragment of ophiolite complex. It comprises transition types of the second and third layers of the Paleooceanic crust: the upper noncumulated part of the third layer gabbro component and the following lowest part of the parallel diabase dykes of the second layer. The ophiolites are represented by metagabbros, metagabbro-diabases, metadiabases and amphibolite schists. According to the content of petrogenic components and additive elements in metabasites is stated that the protolith of metabasites belongs to petrochemical type of tholeiitic series of basalts. The parental magma of metaophiolites is of E-MORB composition, and by petrochemical parameters, it is very close to the composition of intraplate basalts. The dykes of hypabissal leucocratic siliceous and medium magmatic rocks associated with the metaophiolite sheet form the separate complex. They are granitoids with the extremely low content of CaO and quartz-diorite porphyries. According to various petrochemical parameters, these rocks have mixed characteristics. Their formation took place in spreading conditions or in the areas of manifestation of plumes most likely of island arc type. The metamorphism degree of the metaophiolites corresponds to a very low stage of green schist facies. The rocks of the metaophiolite complex are obducted from the Paleotethys Ocean. Geological and paleomagnetic data show that the primary location of the ocean is supposed to be to the north of the Loki crystalline massif.

Keywords: Ophiolites, The Caucasus, crystalline massif, tectonic sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 135