T. Wada

Publications

1 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada

Abstract:

Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) –nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1328

Abstracts

5 Basic Examination of Easily Distinguishable Tactile Symbols Attached to Containers and Packaging

Authors: T. Wada, T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa

Abstract:

In Japan, it is expected that reasonable accommodation for persons with disabilities will progress further. In particular, there is an urgent need to enhance information support for visually impaired persons who have difficulty accessing information. Recently, tactile symbols have been attached to various surfaces, such as the content labels of containers and packaging of various everyday products. The advantage of tactile symbols is that they are useful for visually impaired persons who cannot read Braille. The method of displaying tactile symbols is prescribed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, the quantitative data on the shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols is insufficient. In this study, through an evaluation experiments, we examine the easy-to-distinguish shapes and dimensions of tactile symbols used for various applications, including the content labels on containers and packaging. Visually impaired persons participated in the experiments. They used tactile symbols on a daily basis. The details and processes of the experiments were orally explained to the participants prior to the experiments, and the informed consent of the participants was obtained. They were instructed to touch the test pieces of tactile symbols freely with both hands. These tactile symbols were selected because they were likely to be easily distinguishable symbols on the content labels of top surfaces of containers and packaging based on a hearing survey that involved employees of an organization of visually impaired and a social welfare corporation, as well as academic experts of support technology for visually impaired. The participants then answered questions related to ease of distinguishing of tactile symbols on a scale of 5 (where 1 corresponded to ‘difficult to distinguish’ and 5 corresponded to ‘easy to distinguish’). Hearing surveys were also performed in an oral free answer manner with the participants after the experiments. This study revealed the shapes and dimensions regarding easily distinguishable tactile symbols attached to containers and packaging. We expect that this knowledge contributes to improvement of the quality of life of visually impaired persons.

Keywords: Visual Impairment, accessible design, tactile symbol, containers and packaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
4 Evaluation Study of Easily Identification of Tactile Symbol on Body Soap Bottle

Authors: T. Wada, T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto, Y. Hoshikawa

Abstract:

Japanese industrial standard (JIS) association established one JIS (JIS S 0021) regarding packaging accessible design for people with visual impairments and elderly people in 2000. Recently, tactile symbol on shampoo bottle has been known as one of package accessible design and more effectively used. However, it has been said that people with visual impairment have been not been in trouble with difficulty of identifying body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. Japanese low vision association asked JIS association to solve this problem. JIS association and Japan cosmetic industry association constituted one review team for solving the problem. The review team asked our research team to make a proposal regarding new tactile symbol on body soap bottle. We conducted user survey and maker survey regarding tactile symbol on body soap bottle with easily identification. Seven test tactile symbol marks were elected in our proposed tactile symbols. In this study, we evaluate easily identification of tactile symbol on body soap bottle. Six visual impaired subjects were participated in our experiment. These subjects were asked to identify body soap bottle between three bottles such as body soap bottle, shampoo bottle, and conditioner bottle. The test tactile symbol on body soap were presented in random order. The test tactile symbols were produced by use of our originally developed 3D raised equipment. From our study, test tactile symbol marks with easily identification were made a short list of our proposed tactile symbols. This knowledge will be helpful in revision of ISO 11156.

Keywords: people with visual impairments, tactile symbol, easily identification, body soap

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
3 Relationship between Readability of Paper-Based Braille and Character Spacing

Authors: T. Wada, T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto

Abstract:

The Number of people with acquired visual impairments has increased in recent years. In specialized courses at schools for the blind and in Braille lessons offered by social welfare organizations, many people with acquired visual impairments cannot learn to read adequately Braille. One of the reasons is that the common Braille patterns for people visual impairments who already has mature Braille reading skill being difficult to read for Braille reading beginners. In addition, there is the scanty knowledge of Braille book manufacturing companies regarding what Braille patterns would be easy to read for beginners. Therefore, it is required to investigate a suitable Braille patterns would be easy to read for beginners. In order to obtain knowledge regarding suitable Braille patterns for beginners, this study aimed to elucidate the relationship between readability of paper-based Braille and its patterns. This study focused on character spacing, which readily affects Braille reading ability, to determine a suitable character spacing ratio (ratio of character spacing to dot spacing) for beginners. Specifically, considering beginners with acquired visual impairments who are unfamiliar with reading Braille, we quantitatively evaluated the effect of character spacing ratio on Braille readability through an evaluation experiment using sighted subjects with no experience of reading Braille. In this experiment, ten sighted adults took the blindfold were asked to read test piece (three Braille characters). Braille used as test piece was composed of five dots. They were asked to touch the Braille by sliding their forefinger on the test piece immediately after the test examiner gave a signal to start the experiment. Then, they were required to release their forefinger from the test piece when they perceived the Braille characters. Seven conditions depended on character spacing ratio was held (i.e., 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2 [mm]), and the other four depended on the dot spacing (i.e., 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 [mm]). Ten trials were conducted for each conditions. The test pieces are created using by NISE Graphic could print Braille adjusted arbitrary value of character spacing and dot spacing with high accuracy. We adopted the evaluation indices for correct rate, reading time, and subjective readability to investigate how the character spacing ratio affects Braille readability. The results showed that Braille reading beginners could read Braille accurately and quickly, when character spacing ratio is more than 1.8 and dot spacing is more than 3.0 mm. Furthermore, it is difficult to read Braille accurately and quickly for beginners, when both character spacing and dot spacing are small. For this study, suitable character spacing ratio to make reading easy for Braille beginners is revealed.

Keywords: readability, braille, character spacing, people with visual impairments

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
2 Influence of Tactile Symbol Size on Its Perceptibility in Consideration of Effect of Aging

Authors: T. Wada, T. Nishimura, K. Doi, H. Fujimoto

Abstract:

We conducted perception experiments on tactile symbols to elucidate the impact of the size of these letters on the level of perceptibility. This study was based on the accessible design perspective and aimed at expanding the availability of tactile symbols for the visually impaired who are unable to read Braille characters. In particular, this study targeted people with acquired visual impairments as users of the tactile symbols. The subjects (young and elderly individuals) in this study had normal vision. They were asked to participate in the experiments to identify tactile symbols while unable to see their hand during the experiments. This study investigated the relation between the size and perceptibility of tactile symbols based on an examination using test pieces of these letters in different sizes. The results revealed that the error rates for both young and elderly subjects converged to almost 0% when 12 mm size tactile symbols were used. The findings also showed that the error rate was low and subjects could identify the symbols in 5 s when 16 mm size tactile symbols were introduced.

Keywords: bioinformatic, accessible design, tactile sense, tactile symbols

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
1 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada

Abstract:

Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Phase transitions, Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 260