M. Grzegorzewski

Publications

1 Threats and Preventive Methods to Avoid Bird Strikes at the Deblin Military Airfield, Poland

Authors: J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the project conducted in Poland devoted to study on bird strikes at military airfields. The main aim of this project was to develop methods of aircraft protection against threats from birds. The studies were carried out using two methods. One by transect and the other one by selected sector scanning. During the research, it was recorded, that 104 species of birds in the number about of 36000 were observed. The most frequent ones were starling Sturnus vulgaris (31.0%), jackdaw Corvus monedula (18.3%), rook Corvus frugilegus (15.9 %), lapwing Vanellus vanellus (6.2%). Moreover, it was found, that starlings constituted the most serious threat. It resulted from their relatively high attendance at the runway (about 300 individuals). Possible repellent techniques concerning of the Deblin military airfield were discussed. The analysis of the birds’ concentration depending on the altitude, part of the day, year, part of the airfield constituted a base to work out critical flight phase and appropriate procedures to prevent bird strikes.

Keywords: Airport, Flight Safety, bird strikes, preventive methods

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Abstracts

2 Security Analysis of Mod. S Transponder Technology and Attack Examples

Authors: M. Rutkowski, J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

All class A Airplanes have to be equipped with Mod. S transponder for ATC surveillance purposes. This technology was designed to provide a robust and dependable solution to localize, identify and exchange data with the airplane. The purpose of this paper is to analyze potential hazards that are a result of lack of any security or encryption on a design level. Secondary Surveillance Radars rely on an active response from an airplane. SSR radar installation is broadcasting a directional interrogation signal to the planes in range on 1030MHz frequency with DPSK modulation. If the interrogation is correctly received by the transponder located on the plane, a proper answer is sent on 1090MHz with PPM modulation containing plane’s SQUAWK, barometric altitude, GPS coordinates and 24bit unique address code. This technology does not use any kind of encryption. All of the specifications from the previous chapter can be found easily on the internet. Since there is no encryption or security measure to ensure the credibility of the sender and message, it is highly hazardous to use such technology to ensure the safety of the air traffic. The only thing that identifies the airplane is the 24-bit unique address. Most of the planes have been sniffed by aviation enthusiasts and cataloged in web databases. In the moment of writing this article, The PoFung Technologies has announced that they are planning to release all band SDR transceiver – this device would be more than enough to build your own Mod. S Transponder. With fake transponder, a potential terrorist can identify as a different airplane. By replacing the transponder in a poorly controlled airspace, hijackers can enter another airspace identifying themselves as another plane and land in the desired area.

Keywords: security analysis, Flight Safety, hijack, mod S transponder

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1 Threats and Preventive Methods to Avoid Bird Strikes at the Deblin Military Airfield, Poland

Authors: J. Cwiklak, M. Grzegorzewski, M. Adamski

Abstract:

The paper presents results of the project conducted in Poland devoted to study on bird strikes at military airfields. The main aim of this project was to develop methods of aircraft protection against threats from birds. The studies were carried out using two methods. One by transect and the other one by selected sector scanning. During the research, it was recorded, that 104 species of birds in the number about of 36000 were observed. The most frequent ones were starling Sturnus vulgaris (31.0%), jackdaw Corvus monedula (18.3%), rook Corvus frugilegus (15.9 %), lapwing Vanellus vanellus (6.2%). Moreover, it was found, that starlings constituted the most serious threat. It resulted from their relatively high attendance at the runway (about 300 individuals). Possible repellent techniques concerning of the Deblin military airfield were discussed. The analysis of the birds’ concentration depending on the altitude, part of the day, year, part of the airfield constituted a base to work out critical flight phase and appropriate procedures to prevent bird strikes.

Keywords: Airport, Flight Safety, bird strikes, preventive methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 280