Jibril Mohammed

Publications

1 Kinetic Rate Comparison of Methane Catalytic Combustion of Palladium Catalysts Impregnated onto γ-Alumina and Bio-Char

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Eric C. A. Tatt, Jibril Mohammed, Husna M. Zain

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion of methane is imperative due to stability of methane at low temperature. Methane (CH4), therefore, remains unconverted in vehicle exhausts thereby causing greenhouse gas GHG emission problem. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts of palladium with bio-char (2 wt% Pd/Bc) and Al2O3 (2wt% Pd/ Al2O3) supports were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and then subsequently tested for catalytic combustion of CH4. Support-porous heterogeneous catalytic combustion (HCC) material were selected based on factors such as surface area, porosity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, reactivity with reactants or products, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and catalyst life. Sustainable and renewable support-material of bio-mass char derived from palm shell waste material was compared with those from the conventional support-porous materials. Kinetic rate of reaction was determined for combustion of methane on Palladium (Pd) based catalyst with Al2O3 support and bio-char (Bc). Material characterization was done using TGA, SEM, and BET surface area. The performance test was accomplished using tubular quartz reactor with gas mixture ratio of 3% methane and 97% air. The methane porous-HCC conversion was carried out using online gas analyzer connected to the reactor that performed porous-HCC. BET surface area for prepared 2 wt% Pd/Bc is smaller than prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 due to its low porosity between particles. The order of catalyst activity based on kinetic rate on reaction of catalysts in low temperature was 2wt% Pd/Bc>calcined 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3> 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3>calcined 2wt% Pd/Bc. Hence agro waste material can successfully be utilized as an inexpensive catalyst support material for enhanced CH4 catalytic combustion.

Keywords: Sustainable, Environmental, Renewable Material, catalytic-combustion, Support-bio-char material

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Abstracts

3 Potassium Acetate - Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Abdulsalam Surajudeen

Abstract:

Considerable concerns have been raised over the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. In this study, coconut shell based activated carbon was produced through chemical activation with potassium acetate (PAAC) for adsorption of benzene and toluene. The porous carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis and nitrogen adsorption tests. Adsorption of benzene and toluene on the porous carbons were conducted at varying concentrations (50-250 mg/l). The high BET surface area of 622 m2/g and highly heteroporous adsorbent prepared gave good removal efficiencies of 79 and 82% for benzene and toluene respectively, with 32% yield. Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms with all the models having R2 > 0.94. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 192 mg/g and 227 mg/g for benzene and toluene respectively. The Webber and Chakkravorti equilibrium parameter (RL) values are between 0 and 1 confirming the favourability of the Langmuir model. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The PAAC produced can be used effectively to salvage environmental pollution problems posed by VOCs through a sustainable process.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Adsorption, equilibrium and kinetics studies, potassium acetate

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2 Batch and Fixed-Bed Studies of Ammonia Treated Coconut Shell Activated Carbon for Adsorption of Benzene and Toluene

Authors: Jibril Mohammed, Usman Dadum Hamza, Muhammad Idris Misau, Baba Yahya Danjuma, Yusuf Bode Raji, Abdulsalam Surajudeen

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been reported to be responsible for many acute and chronic health effects and environmental degradations such as global warming. In this study, a renewable and low-cost coconut shell activated carbon (PHAC) was synthesized and treated with ammonia (PHAC-AM) to improve its hydrophobicity and affinity towards VOCs. Removal efficiencies and adsorption capacities of the ammonia treated activated carbon (PHAC-AM) for benzene and toluene were carried out through batch and fixed-bed studies respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least fitted by Tempkin model; the favourability and suitability of fitness were validated by equilibrium parameter (RL) and the root square mean deviation (RSMD). Judging by the deviation of the predicted values from the experimental values, pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption kinetics than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model for the two VOCs on PHAC and PHAC-AM. In the fixed-bed study, the effect of initial VOC concentration, bed height and flow rate on benzene and toluene adsorption were studied. The highest bed capacities of 77.30 and 69.40 mg/g were recorded for benzene and toluene respectively; at 250 mg/l initial VOC concentration, 2.5 cm bed height and 4.5 ml/min flow rate. The results of this study revealed that ammonia treated activate carbon (PHAC-AM) is a sustainable adsorbent for treatment of VOCs in polluted waters.

Keywords: Volatile Organic Compounds, equilibrium and kinetics studies, batch and fixed bed study, bio-based activated carbon

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1 Kinetic Rate Comparison of Methane Catalytic Combustion of Palladium Catalysts Impregnated onto ɤ-Alumina and Bio-Char

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Eric C. A. Tatt, Jibril Mohammed, Husna M. Zain

Abstract:

Climate change has becoming a global environmental issue that may trigger irreversible changes in the environment with catastrophic consequences for human, animals and plants on our planet. Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the greenhouse gases (GHG) and as the main factor that significantly contributes to the global warming. Mainly carbon dioxide be produced and released to atmosphere by thermal industrial and power generation sectors. Methane is dominant component of natural gas releases significant of thermal heat, and the gaseous pollutants when homogeneous thermal combustion takes place at high temperature. Heterogeneous catalytic Combustion (HCC) principle is promising technologies towards environmental friendly energy production should be developed to ensure higher yields with lower pollutants gaseous emissions and perform complete combustion oxidation at moderate temperature condition as comparing to homogeneous high thermal combustion. Hence the principle has become a very interesting alternative total oxidation for the treatment of pollutants gaseous emission especially NOX product formation. Noble metals are dispersed on a support-porous HCC such as γ- Al2O3, TiO2 and ThO2 to increase thermal stability of catalyst and to increase to effectiveness of catalytic combustion. Support-porous HCC material to be selected based on factors of the surface area, porosity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, reactivity with reactants or products, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and catalyst life. γ- Al2O3 with high catalytic activity and can last longer life of catalyst, is commonly used as the support for Pd catalyst at low temperatures. Sustainable and renewable support-material of bio-mass char was derived from agro-industrial waste material and used to compare with those the conventional support-porous material. The abundant of biomass wastes generated in palm oil industries is one potential source to convert the wastes into sustainable material as replacement of support material for catalysts. Objective of this study was to compare the kinetic rate of reaction the combustion of methane on Palladium (Pd) based catalyst with Al2O3 support and bio-char (Bc) support derived from shell kernel. The 2wt% Pd was prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method and the HCC performance was accomplished using tubular quartz reactor with gas mixture ratio of 3% methane and 97% air. Material characterization was determined using TGA, SEM, and BET surface area. The methane porous-HCC conversion was carried out by online gas analyzer connected to the reactor that performed porous-HCC. BET surface area for prepared 2 wt% Pd/Bc is smaller than prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 due to its low porosity between particles. The order of catalyst activity based on kinetic rate on reaction of catalysts in low temperature is prepared 2wt% Pd/Bc > calcined 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > calcined 2wt% Pd/Bc. Hence the usage of agro-industrial bio-mass waste material can enhance the sustainability principle.

Keywords: Environmental, catalytic-combustion, support-bio-char material, sustainable and renewable material

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