Hwa Sung Shin

Abstracts

12 Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers

Authors: Seon Yeong Byeon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.

Keywords: alginate, polycaprolactone, cosmetic patch, electrospun nanofiber, Spirulina extract

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11 A Promising Thrombolytic and Anticoagulant Serine Protease Purified from Lug Worms Inhabiting Tidal Flats

Authors: Hye Jin Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke means the caused brain damage due to neurological defects, occurring occlusion of cerebral vascular resulting in thrombus or embolism. t-PA (tissue Plasminogen Activator) is the only thrombolytic agent passed the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). However, t-PA directly dissolves the thrombus (direct activity) through fibrinolysis, showing side effects such as re-occlusion. In this study, we evaluated the thrombolytic activities of the serine protease extracted from lugworms inhabiting tidal flats. The new serine protease identified as 38 kDa by SDS-PAGE was not toxic to brain endothelial cells line (hCMEC/D3). Also, the plasmin synthesis inhibition activity (indirect activity) of the new serine protease was confirmed through fibrin zymography assay and fibrin plate assay. It was higher than direct activity as compared to u-PA (urokinase Plasminogen Activator). The activities were found to be maintained at a wide range of temperature (4-70 ℃) and pH 7-10 compared to previous thrombolytic agents from the azocasein assay. In addition, the new serine protease has shown anticoagulant activity from fibrinogenolytic activity assay. In conclusion, the serine protease in lug worms inhabiting the tidal flats could be considered a promising thrombolytic candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Keywords: ischemic stroke, alkaline serine protease, bifunctional thrombolytic activity, fibrinolytic activity, lug worms

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10 Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke

Authors: Kyou Hee Shim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Keywords: chitosan, ischemic stroke, liposome, cyanobacterial pigment, nasal administration

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9 Effective Removal of Tetrodotoxin with Fiber Mat Containing Activated Charcoal

Authors: Min Sik Kim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

From 2013, small eel farms, which are located in Han River Estuary, South Korea suffer damage because of unknown massive perish. In the middle of discussion that the cause of perish could be environmental changes or waste water, a large amount of unknown nemertean was discovered during that time. Some nemerteans are known releasing neurotoxin substance. In this study, we isolated intestinal bacteria using selective media and conducted 16s rDNA microbial identification by gene alignment. As a result, there was a type of bacteria producing TTX, blocks sodium-channel inducing organism’s death. TTX production from the bacteria was confirmed by ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Additionally, the activated-charcoal which has an ability to absorb small molecules like toxin was applied to fibrous mesh to prevent ingestion of aquatic organisms and increase applicable area. The viability of zebrafish in the water with TTX and charcoal fiber mat were not decreased meaning it could be used for solving the perishing problem in fish farm.

Keywords: zebrafish, nemertean, TTX, fiber mat, activated charcoal

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8 Investigation of Astrocyte Physiology on Stiffness-Controlled Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber as a Tissue Scaffold

Authors: Sun Il Yu, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Astrocytes are known as dominant cells in CNS and play a role as a supporter of CNS activity and regeneration. Recently, three-dimensional culture of astrocytes were actively applied to understand in vivo astrocyte works. Electrospun nanofibers are attractive for 3D cell culture system because they have a high surface to volume ratio and porous structure, and have already been used for 3D astrocyte cultures. In this research, the stiffness of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiber was controlled by heat treatment. As stiffness increased, astrocyte cell viability and adhesion increased. Reactivity of astrocyte was also upregulated in stiffer CA nanofiber in terms of GFAP, an intermediate filament protein. Finally, we demonstrated that stiffness-controllable CA is attractive for astrocyte tissue engineering.

Keywords: Nanofiber, astrocyte, cellulose acetate, tissue scaffold

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7 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, c-phycocyanin, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

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6 Ceramide-PLGA Nanoparticle Formation to Apply to Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Chul Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Ceramide, a component of stratum corneum at epidermis, helps to construct a rigid and dense skin barrier to prevent pathogens that cause atopic dermatitis. However, ceramide was too hydrophobic to be directly absorbed into stratum corneum and has risks of side effects by excessive treatment. To overcome the obstacles, ceramide was embedded into PLGA nanoparticles coated with chitosan. PLGA and chitosan have been known as biocompatible materials. PLGA was squeezed when faced with water and pumped ceramide out of PLGA nanoparticle. In addition, the chitosan coating layer helped initial adherence of nanoparticles to skin and regulate ceramide release until removed. This coating was degraded at weakly acid state like skin surface, finally ceramide release could be controlled. Finally, the nanoparticle was demonstrated to be non-cytotoxic and regenerate stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis model. Overall the nanoparticle is suggested as a novel and effective nanodrug to apply atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Atopic dermatitis, controlled release, chitosan coating, ceramide

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5 Suitability Verification of Cellulose Nanowhisker as a Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Moon Hee Jung, Dae Seung Kim, Sang-Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Scaffolds are an important part to support growth and differentiation of osteoblast for regeneration of injured bone in bone tissue engineering. We utilized tunicate cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) as scaffold and developed complex system that can enhance differentiation of osteoblast by applying mechanical stimulation. CNW, a crystal form of cellulose, has high stiffness with a large surface area and is useful as a biomedical material due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. In this study, CNW was obtained from tunicate extraction and was confirmed for its adhesion, differentiation, growth of osteoblast without cytotoxicity. In addition, osteoblast was successfully differentiated under mechanical stimulation, followed by calcium dependent signaling. In conclusion, we verified suitability of CNW as scaffold and possibility of bone substitutes.

Keywords: Bone Tissue Engineering, osteoblast, cellulose nanowhisker, mechanical stimulation, CNW, bone substitute

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4 Analysis of Mechanotransduction-Induced Microalgae under Direct Membrane Distortion

Authors: Myung Kwon Cho, Seul Ki Min, Gwang Heum Yoon, Jung Hyun Joo, Sang Jun Sim, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Mechanotransduction is a mechanism that external mechanical stimulation is converted to biochemical activity in the cell. When applying this mechanism to the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the dramatic result that the accumulation of intracellular lipid was up to 60% of dry weight basis occurred. Furthermore, various variations in cellular physiology occurred, but there is a lack of the development of the system and related research for applying that technology to control the mechanical stress and facilitate molecular analyses. In this study, applying a mechanical stress to microalgae, the microfluidic device system that finely induced direct membrane distortion of microalgae. Cellular membrane distortion led to deflagellation, calcium influx and lipid accumulation in microalgae. In conclusion, cytological studies such as mechanotransduction can be actualized by using this system and membrane distortion is a promising inducer for biodiesel production.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Microalgae, Mechanotransduction, membrane distortion

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3 Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Modification for Regulating Astrocyte Activity via Simple Heat Treatment

Authors: Sang-Myung Jung, Jeong Hyun Ju, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Central nervous system (CNS) consists of neuronal cell and supporting cells. Astrocytes are the most common supporting cells and play roles in metabolism between neurons and blood vessel. For this function, engineered astrocytes have been studied as a therapeutic source for CNS injury. In neural tissue engineering, nanofiber has been suggested as an effective scaffold for providing structure and mechanical properties influencing physiology. Cellulose acetate (CA) has been investigated for material to fabricate scaffold because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and fine thermal stability. In this research, CA nanofiber was modified via heat treatment and its effect on astrocyte activity was evaluated. Adhesion and viability of astrocyte were increased in proportion to stiffness. Additionally, expression of GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation, was increased via stiffness of scaffold. This research suggests a simple modification method to change stiffness of CA nanofiber and shows cellular behavior affecting stiffness of three-dimensional scaffold independently. For the results, we highlight that the stiffness is a factor to regulate astrocyte activity.

Keywords: Cell Therapy, astrocyte, cellulose acetate, stiffness of scaffold

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2 Promotion of Lipid Syntheses of Microalgae by Microfluidic-Assisted Membrane Distortion

Authors: Seul Ki Min, Gwang Heum Yoon, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Cellular membrane distortion is known as a factor to change intracellular signaling. However, progress of relevant studies is difficult because there are no facilities that can control membrane distortion finely. In this study, we developed microfluidic device which can inflict mechanical stress on cell membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using regular height of the channels. And cellular physiological changes were analyzed from cells cultured in the device. Excessive calcium ion influx through into cytoplasm was induced from mechanical stress. The results revealed that compressed cells had up-regulated Mat3 mRNA which regulates cell size and cell cycle from a prolonged G1 phase. Additionally, TAG used for the production of biodiesel was raised rapidly from 4 h after compression. Taken together, membrane distortion can be considered as an attractive inducer for biofuel production.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, mechanical stress, Lipid Metabolism, membrane distortion, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, deflagellation

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1 Suitability Evaluation of CNW as Scaffold for Osteoblast

Authors: Hoo Cheol Lee, Dae Seung Kim, Sang Myung Jung, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Loss of bone tissue can occur due to a bone tissue disease and aging or fracture. Renewable formation of bone is mainly made by its differentiation and metabolism. For this reason, osteoblasts have been studied for regeneration of bone tissue. So, tissue engineering has attracted attention as a recovery means. In tissue engineering, a particularly important factor is a scaffold that supports cell growth. For osteoblast scaffold, we used the cellulose nanowhisker (CNW) extracted from marine organism. CNW is one of an abundant material obtained from a number of plants and animals. CNW is polymer consisting of monomer cellulose and this composition offers biodegradability and biocompatibility to CNW. Mechanical strength of CNW is superior to the existing natural polymers. In addition, substances of marine origin have a low risk of secondary infection by bacteria and pathogen in contrast with those of land-derived. For evaluating its suitability as an osteoblast scaffold, we fabricate CNW film for osteoblast culture and performed the MTT assay and ALP assay to confirm its cytotoxicity and effect on differentiation. Taking together these results, we assessed CNW is a potential candidate of a material for bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Bone Regeneration, osteoblast, cellulose nanowhisker, marine derived material

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