Hye Kyung Kim

Abstracts

8 Immunomodulatory Effect of Deer Antler Extract

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

Velvet antler (VA), the immature antlers of male deer, is traditionally used for thousands of years in Asian countries, such as Korea, China, Taiwan, and Mongolia. It has been considered to improve immune system and physical strength. The goal of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of deer antler velvet using in vitro system. In the first step, the effects of VA (70% ethanol extract) on the proliferation of splenocytes, bone marrow cell, and macrophages were determined. Next, the effect of VA on the production of nitric oxide and phagocytic activity in macrophage were measured. The results showed that VA treatment increased concanavalin-A stimulated splenocyte, bone marrow cells, and macrophage proliferation in a dose dependent manner. VA at 50 and 100 ug/mL concentrations significantly enhanced the concanavalin-A stimulated splenocyte proliferation by 8.8% and 18.5%, respectively. The proliferation of bone marrow cells, isolated from 5wk-old ICR mice, were increased by 25.2% and 46.5% by 50 and 100 ug/mL VA treatment. RAW 264.7 cell proliferation reached peak value at 50 ug/mL of VA treatment exhibiting 108% of the basal value. Nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was slightly reduced by VA treatment but was not statistically significant. Moreover, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was enhanced by VA treatment. These results indicate that VA is effective in immune system.

Keywords: bone marrow cells, deer antler, phagocytosis, splenocyte, macrophage proliferation

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7 Anti-Osteoporotic Effect of Deer Antler in Ovariectomized Rats

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

The deer velvet antler is well known for its traditional medicinal value and is widely used in the clinic. It has been considered to possess bone-strengthening activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-osteoporotic effect of deer antler velvet on ovariectomized rats (OVX), and their possible mechanism of the action. In the first step, the in vitro effects of DAE on bone loss were determined. The proliferation, collagen content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of human osteoblastic MG-63 cells and osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells were measured. The in vivo experiment confirmed the positive effect of DAE on bone tissue. 3-month old female Sparague-Dawley rats were either sham operated or OVX, and administered DAE (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. DAE increased MG-63 cell proliferation and ALP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Collagen content was also increased by DAE treatment. However, the effect of DAE on bone resorption was not observed. OVX rats supplemented with DAE showed osteoprotective effects as the bone ALP level was increased and c-terminal telopeptide level was decreased by 100 mg/kg DAE treatment compared with OVX controls. Moreover, the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b level was also decreased by DAE treatment. The present study suggests that DAE is effective in preventing bone loss in OVX rats, and may be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, deer antler, bone ALP, c-terminal telopeptide, ovariectomy, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b

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6 Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten on Glucose Uptake and Insulin Sensitivity in Pancreatic β Cell

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and have been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. However, very little information is currently available for their mechanism. The prikly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. Present study investigated the effects of OFS on pancreatic β-cell function using pancreatic islet β cells (HIT cell). Alpha-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell proliferation were determined. The inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of OFS stem on α-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Glucose uptake was determined using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA assay. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently inhibited α-glucosidase activity as well as glucose uptake. Insulinotrophic effect of OFS extract was observed at high glucose media in pancreatic β-islet cells. Furthermore, pancreatic β cell regeneration was also observed.These results suggest that OFS mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, and improved insulin sensitivity.

Keywords: glucose uptake, α-glucosidase, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, prickly pear cactus, pancreatic islet HIT cells, insulinotrophic

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5 Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

The prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) has a global distribution and has been used for medicinal benefits such as artherosclerosis, diabetes, gastritis, and hyperglycemia. The prickly pear variety Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten (OFS) is widely cultivated in Cheju Island, the southwestern region of Korea, and used as a functional food. The present study investigated the effects of OFS on adipogenesis, lipolysis, glucose uptake, and glucose transporter (GLUT4) expression using preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Adipogenesis was determined by preadipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipolysis was determined as the rate of glycerol release. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were measured using fluorescent glucose analogue, 2-NBDG, and ELISA, respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to investigate the effects of OFS on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Ethanol extracts of OFS dose-dependently enhanced adipocyte differentiation and cellular triglyceride levels indicating the enhancement of the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression were also dose-dependently increased by OFS treatment. Furthermore, OFS treatment also increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ. These effects of OFS on adipocytes suggest that OFS is potentially beneficial for type 2 diabetes by due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties.

Keywords: adipogenesis, GLUT4, lipolysis, Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten, PPARγ, prickly pear cactus

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4 Effect of Deer Antler Extract on Osteogenic Gene Expression and Longitudinal Bone Growth of Adolescent Male Rats

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

Deer antler, traditionally used as a tonic and valuable drug in oriental medicine, has been considered to possess bone-strengthening activity. The upper section, mid section, and base of the antler has been known to exhibit different biological properties. Present study was performed to examine the effects of different parts of deer antler extract (DH) on osteogenic gene expressions in MG-63 cells and longitudinal bone growth in adolescent male rats. The expressions of osteogenic genes, collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin, were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Longitudinal bone growth was measured in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats using fluorescence microscopy. To examine the effects on the growth plate metabolism, the total height of growth plate and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were measured. Collagen and osteocalcin mRNA expressions were increased by all three parts of the DH treatment while osteopontin gene expression was not affected by any of the DH treatment. Alkaline phosphatase gene expression was increased by upper and mid part of DH while base part of DH fails to affect alkaline phosphatase gene expression. The upper and mid parts of the DH treatment enhanced longitudinal bone growth and total height of growth plate. The induction of BMP-2 protein expression in growth plate assessed by immunostaining was also promoted by upper and mid parts of the DH treatment. These results suggest that DH, especially upper and mid parts, stimulate osteogenic gene expressions and have the effect on bone growth in adolescent rats and might be used for the growth delayed adolescent and inherent growth failure patient.

Keywords: osteogenic genes, longitudinal bone growth, deer antler, bone morphogenetic protein-2

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3 Bone Strengthening Effects of Deer Antler Extract

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

It has been reported that deer antler extract has bone-strengthening activity and effectively used in bone diseases therapy. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism of this effect. The upper section, mid section, and base of the antler has been known to exhibit different biological properties. Present study investigated the effects of these three parts of deer antler extracts on bone formation and resorption. The effects of deer antler extracts (DH) on bone formation were determined by cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. The effect on bone resorption was determined by osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells driven by RANKL. Ethanol extracts of DH (50 ~ 100 µg/ml) dose-dependently increased cell proliferation, and upper part increased the cell proliferation by 118.4% while mid and base parts increased proliferation by 107.8% and 102.3%, respectively. ALP activity was significantly increased by upper part of the DH treatment. After enhancement of ALP activity, significant augmentation of collagen synthesis and calcification assessed by Sirus red and Alzarin red staining, respectively, was observed in upper part of the DH treatment. The effect of DH on bone resorption was not observed in all three parts of the DH. These results could provide a mechanistic explanation for the bone-strengthening effects of DH.

Keywords: osteoblastic MG-63 cells, alkaline phosphatase, collagen synthesis, deer antler

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2 Effects of Egg Yolk Peptide on the Retardation of Bone Growth Induced by Low-Calcium Diets

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

Eggs have long been an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the human, and recognized as a very valuable source of proteins for human nutrition. Egg yolk is composed of various important chemical substances for human health. Growth means not only the increase of body weight but also the elongation of height and the enlargement of each organ's anatomical and morphological size. A calcium shortage causes the growth retardation on the body growth. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on the retardation of the longitudinal bone growth induced by low-calcium diet (0.05%) in adolescent rats. Low calcium diets were administrated for 15 days. During the last five days, calcium and/or vitamin D and/or EYP were administrated. The body weights, longitudinal bone growth rates, the heights of growth plates, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expressions were measured using histochemical analysis. Low calcium diets caused the significant reduction in body weight gains and the longitudinal bone growth. The heights of growth plates and the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 showed the impairment of body growth as well. Calcium and/or vitamin D administration could not significantly increase the longitudinal bone growth. However, calcium, vitamin D, and EYP administration significantly increased the bone growth, the growth plate height, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions. These results suggest that EYP enhances the longitudinal bone growth in the calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency and it could be a promising agent for the treatment of children suffering from malnutrition.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, low-calcium diet, longitudinal bone growth, morphogenetic protein-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, vitamin D

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1 Egg Yolk Peptide Stimulated Osteogenic Gene Expression

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem

Abstract:

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density which leads to increased bone fragility and greater susceptibility to fracture. Current treatments for osteoporosis are dominated by drugs that inhibit bone resorption although they also suppress bone formation that may contribute to pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. To restore the extensive bone loss, there is a great need for anabolic treatments that induce osteoblasts to build new bone. Pre-osteoblastic cells produce proteins of the extra-cellular matrix, including type I collagen at first, and then to successively produce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin during differentiation to osteoblasts. Finally, osteoblasts deposit calcium. Present study investigated the effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on osteogenic activities and bone matrix gene expressions in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. The effects of EYP on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization were measured. The expression of osteogenic genes including COL1A1 (collagen, type I, alpha 1), ALP, BGLAP (osteocalcin), and SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1, osteopontin) were measured by quantitative realtime PCR. EYP dose-dependently increased MG-63 cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen synthesis, and calcium deposition. Furthermore, COL1A1, ALP, and SPP1 gene expressions were increased by EYP treatment. Present study suggested that EYP treatment enhanced osteogenic activities and increased bone matrix osteogenicgenes. These results could provide a mechanistic explanation for the bone-strengthening effects of EYP.

Keywords: osteopontin, egg yolk peptide, osteoblastic MG-63 cells, alkaline phosphatase, collagen synthesis, osteogenic genes, COL1A1, osteocalcin

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