Ching-Wei Liao

Publications

1 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robustness, antenna array, adaptive beamforming, linearly constrained minimum variance, steering vector

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Abstracts

4 Robust Processing of Antenna Array Signals under Local Scattering Environments

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

An adaptive array beamformer is designed for automatically preserving the desired signals while cancelling interference and noise. Providing robustness against model mismatches and tracking possible environment changes calls for robust adaptive beamforming techniques. The design criterion yields the well-known generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) beamformer. In practice, the knowledge of the desired steering vector can be imprecise, which often occurs due to estimation errors in the DOA of the desired signal or imperfect array calibration. In these situations, the SOI is considered as interference, and the performance of the GSC beamformer is known to degrade. This undesired behavior results in a reduction of the array output signal-to-interference plus-noise-ratio (SINR). Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to local scattering environments. As to the implementation of adaptive beamforming, the required computational complexity is enormous when the array beamformer is equipped with massive antenna array sensors. To alleviate this difficulty, a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) with partially adaptivity for less adaptive degrees of freedom and faster adaptive response has been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, it has been shown that the conventional GSC-based adaptive beamformers are usually very sensitive to the mismatch problems due to local scattering situations. In this paper, we present an effective GSC-based beamformer against the mismatch problems mentioned above. The proposed GSC-based array beamformer adaptively estimates the actual direction of the desired signal by using the presumed steering vector and the received array data snapshots. We utilize the predefined steering vector and a presumed angle tolerance range to carry out the required estimation for obtaining an appropriate steering vector. A matrix associated with the direction vector of signal sources is first created. Then projection matrices related to the matrix are generated and are utilized to iteratively estimate the actual direction vector of the desired signal. As a result, the quiescent weight vector and the required signal blocking matrix required for performing adaptive beamforming can be easily found. By utilizing the proposed GSC-based beamformer, we find that the performance degradation due to the considered local scattering environments can be effectively mitigated. To further enhance the beamforming performance, a signal subspace projection matrix is also introduced into the proposed GSC-based beamformer. Several computer simulation examples show that the proposed GSC-based beamformer outperforms the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: signal blocking, adaptive antenna beamforming, local scattering, steering mismatch

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3 Signal Processing Techniques for Adaptive Beamforming with Robustness

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

Adaptive beamforming using antenna array of sensors is useful in the process of adaptively detecting and preserving the presence of the desired signal while suppressing the interference and the background noise. For conventional adaptive array beamforming, we require a prior information of either the impinging direction or the waveform of the desired signal to adapt the weights. The adaptive weights of an antenna array beamformer under a steered-beam constraint are calculated by minimizing the output power of the beamformer subject to the constraint that forces the beamformer to make a constant response in the steering direction. Hence, the performance of the beamformer is very sensitive to the accuracy of the steering operation. In the literature, it is well known that the performance of an adaptive beamformer will be deteriorated by any steering angle error encountered in many practical applications, e.g., the wireless communication systems with massive antennas deployed at the base station and user equipment. Hence, developing effective signal processing techniques to deal with the problem due to steering angle error for array beamforming systems has become an important research work. In this paper, we present an effective signal processing technique for constructing an adaptive beamformer against the steering angle error. The proposed array beamformer adaptively estimates the actual direction of the desired signal by using the presumed steering vector and the received array data snapshots. Based on the presumed steering vector and a preset angle range for steering mismatch tolerance, we first create a matrix related to the direction vector of signal sources. Two projection matrices are generated from the matrix. The projection matrix associated with the desired signal information and the received array data are utilized to iteratively estimate the actual direction vector of the desired signal. The estimated direction vector of the desired signal is then used for appropriately finding the quiescent weight vector. The other projection matrix is set to be the signal blocking matrix required for performing adaptive beamforming. Accordingly, the proposed beamformer consists of adaptive quiescent weights and partially adaptive weights. Several computer simulation examples are provided for evaluating and comparing the proposed technique with the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: Robustness, adaptive beamforming, steering angle error, signal blocking

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2 Adaptive Beamforming with Steering Error and Mutual Coupling between Antenna Sensors

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

Owing to close antenna spacing between antenna sensors within a compact space, a part of data in one antenna sensor would outflow to other antenna sensors when the antenna sensors in an antenna array operate simultaneously. This phenomenon is called mutual coupling effect (MCE). It has been shown that the performance of antenna array systems can be degraded when the antenna sensors are in close proximity. Especially, in a systems equipped with massive antenna sensors, the degradation of beamforming performance due to the MCE is significantly inevitable. Moreover, it has been shown that even a small angle error between the true direction angle of the desired signal and the steering angle deteriorates the effectiveness of an array beamforming system. However, the true direction vector of the desired signal may not be exactly known in some applications, e.g., the application in land mobile-cellular wireless systems. Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to the MCE and steering angle error for array beamforming systems. In this paper, we present an efficient technique for performing adaptive beamforming with robust capabilities against the MCE and the steering angle error. Only the data vector received by an antenna array is required by the proposed technique. By using the received array data vector, a correlation matrix is constructed to replace the original correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector. Then, the mutual coupling matrix due to the MCE on the antenna array is estimated through a recursive algorithm. An appropriate estimate of the direction angle of the desired signal can also be obtained during the recursive process. Based on the estimated mutual coupling matrix, the estimated direction angle, and the reconstructed correlation matrix, the proposed technique can effectively cure the performance degradation due to steering angle error and MCE. The novelty of the proposed technique is that the implementation procedure is very simple and the resulting adaptive beamforming performance is satisfactory. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides much better beamforming performance without requiring complicated complexity as compared with the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, mutual coupling effect, recursive algorithm, steering angle error

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1 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robustness, antenna array, adaptive beamforming, linearly constrained minimum variance, steering vector

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