Kamran Khan


1 Assessment of Using Wastage Steel as Welded Reinforcement

Authors: Kamran Khan, Muhammad Murtaza Nasir, Safdar Abbas Zaidi


This work is carried out to evaluate the possibility of using to-be-wasted steel as reinforcement after welding together pieces of reinforcing steel bars, left over during construction activities. Tests were performed on a total of nine samples. These were made by welding pieces of reinforcing steel bars purchased from the local scrap steel market. The samples were tested in uniaxial tension using a universal testing machine (UTM). It was found that the failure of the welded bars is governed by the thickness of the weld. It is concluded that suitable design of the weld is essential for achieving the desired level of ductility/elongation of these bars, if they are to be used as conventional reinforcement in reinforced concrete members.

Keywords: welding, Reinforced Concrete, low cost housing, Ductility/elongation, welded reinforcement, wastage steel

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1 Comparative Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among University Students, Employees as Well as Rural and Urban Population Towards Self Medication

Authors: Kamran Khan, Aqsa Zaman, Furqan K. Hashmi, Hamid Saeed, Nadeem I. Bukhari, Zikria Saleem


Background: Incidence of self-medication (Over the counter drugs and antibiotics without a prescription) is drastically increasing due to the high accessibility of drugs in developing countries. Objective: The aim of this study is the assessment of inappropriate or irrational use of drugs in Pakistan. Methodology: Study design: A cross-sectional, community-based descriptive study was conducted from 10th January to 10th December 2019 by a pre-validated self-administered questionnaire containing three sections including demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practice towards self-medication. The sample was randomly selected. Data is analyzed by SPSS version 22. Setting: Punjab University College of Pharmacy Lahore (PUCP), People's University of Medical and Health Science for Women Nawabshah Shaheed Benazirabad (PUMHS), Pharmaceutical company Lahore (PC), Homeopathic company Lahore (HC) and Samahni District Bhimber Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan (SBAJK). Participants: Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT), Pharm D and Nursing Students, Employees of Pharmaceuticals and Homeopathic companies, urban and rural population. Results: Of the total, 2596 samples, 1593 (61.4%) were females, and 1003 (38.6%) were males. Out of 2596 participants, the prevalence of practice over the counter (OTC) drugs and antibiotics as self-medication among these participants in the last 1year is 89% and 87%, respectively. Out of 2596, the majority of practicing self-medication of OTC drugs and Antibiotics in 466 female students (DPT, Nursing and Pharm D) of PUMHS practice 92% and 88% as compared to 529 pharm D students of PUCP practice 73% and 70% and 790 rural people of SBAJK practice 95% and 93% as compared to 632 urban people of Lahore practice 92% and 91% as well as 57 employees of HC practice 91% and 88% as compared to 152 employees of PC practice 97% and 94% respectively. Majority of OTC drugs and antibiotics used for headache (69%), fever (64%), cough (45%), stomach problem (39%), and sore throats (36%), running nose (34%), wounds (21%) respectively. The most commonly used OTC drugs and antibiotics are Paracetamol (85%), Omeprazole (37%) and Metronidazole (66%), Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid (48%), Ciprofloxacin (36%) respectively. The most common reason for self-medication and source of information is easy accessibility (27%) and advised by a family member having a similar problem (36%), respectively. Knowledge of the participants about the use and side effects of antibiotics was 35% and 12%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, we concluded that self-medication practice in Pakistan is very high due to a lack of knowledge and awareness related to the use and side effects of drugs. The most commonly used OTC drug, antibiotics, minor ailment, reason, and source of self-medication is Paracetamol, Metronidazole, headache, easy accessibility, and advised by a family member having similar problem respectively. To reduce the risk due to self-medication by promoting campaign and awareness program as well as proper counseling of the participants by the physician, pharmacist, and nurse.

Keywords: Student, Antibiotics, self-medication, OTC

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