Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

Abstracts

2 Protective Role of Fish Oil against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Fipronil on Female Rats

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa, Amel A. Refaie, Amal Ramadan

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate the adverse effects of sub-chronic exposure to the fipronil on the liver of female rats at a dose equal to 400 mg /kg (1/10LD50) in drinking water and the protective role of fish oil at concentration 117.6 mg/Kg b.wt via oral routes daily for 28 days. Fipronil treatment caused a decrease in body weight gain and increase in relative liver weight. Fipronil induced a significant increase in the liver biomarkers enzymes such as alanine aminotransferases (ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and levels of total protein while fipronil caused a significant decrease in butyryl cholinesterase activity in FPN-treated rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were significantly decreased in liver tissue, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly increased in fipronil treating rats in a dose-dependent manner. FPN caused histopathological alterations in liver of female rats. From our results, it can be reported that FPN induced lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, liver injury in female rats and fish oil used to protect animals against the adverse effect of pesticide exposure. These pathophysiological alterations in liver tissues could be due to the toxic effect of fipronil that associated with a generation of free radicals.

Keywords: hepatotoxicity, antioxidant enzymes, fish oil, transaminases, fipronil (FPN), female rats

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1 Adverse Effects of Natural Pesticides on Human and Animals: An Experimental Analysis

Authors: Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

Abstract:

Synthetic pesticides are widely used in large-scale worldwide for control pests in agriculture and public health sectors in both developed and developing countries. Although the positive role of pesticides, they have many adverse toxic effects on humans, animals, and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last few years, scientists have been searching for new active compounds from natural resources as an alternative to synthetic pesticides. Currently, many commercial natural pesticides are available commercially worldwide. These products are recommended for uses in organic farmers and considered as safe pesticides. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of natural pesticides on mammals. Available commercial pesticides in the market contain essential oils (e.g. pepper, cinnamon, and garlic), plant extracts, microorganism (e.g. bacteria, fungi or their toxin), mineral oils and some active compounds from natural recourses e.g. spinosad, neem, pyrethrum, rotenone, abamectin and other active compounds from essential oils (EOs). Some EOs components, e.g., thujone, pulegone, and thymol have high acute toxicity (LD50) is 87.5, 150 and 980 mg/kg. B.wt on mice, respectively. Natural pesticides such as spinosad, pyrethrum, neem, abamectin, and others have toxicological effects to mammals and ecosystem. These compounds were found to cause hematotoxicity, hepato-renal toxicity, biochemical alteration, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity. It caused adverse effects on the ecosystem. Therefore, natural pesticides in general not safe and have high acute toxicity and can induce adverse effects at long-term exposure.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Biochemical, Safety, Toxicity, Natural Pesticides, Genotoxicity

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