Reuben Govender

Abstracts

2 The 'Currency' of Dolus Eventualis Considered during Sentencing for Murder

Authors: Reuben Govender

Abstract:

Culpability is an essential element for an accused to be held liable for a crime. The mental element or mens rea determines blameworthiness of an accused on a charge of killing a person. The mens rea required for a conviction of murder is intent while culpable homicide requires negligence. Central to blameworthiness in mens rea is individual freedom and voluntariness. The test for intent is subjective and objective for negligence. This paper presents a review of dolus eventualis in the context of murder trials and from a South African perspective. This paper poses a central questions namely, is dolus eventualis a ‘weaker currency’ during sentencing for murder? This paper attempts to answer this question by reviewing the concept of dolus eventualis, the test in judicial application, a review of decided South African cases in its application, its incorrect application and finally, considerations for its correct application. Lastly, the ‘weight’ of a dolus eventualis conviction in terms of sentencing will be reviewed to support the central question which is answered in the negative.

Keywords: dolus eventualis, dolus indeterminatus, dolus generalis, mens rea

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1 A Case for Ethics Practice under the Revised ISO 14001:2015

Authors: Reuben Govender, M. L. Woermann

Abstract:

The ISO 14001 management system standard was first published in 1996. It is a voluntary standard adopted by both private and public sector organizations globally. Adoption of the ISO 14001 standard at the corporate level is done to help manage business impacts on the environment e.g. pollution control. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) revised the standard in 2004 and recently in 2015. The current revision of the standard appears to adopt a communitarian-type philosophy. The inclusion of requirements to consider external 'interested party' needs and expectations implies this philosophy. Therefore, at operational level businesses implementing ISO 14001 will have to consider needs and expectations beyond local laws. Should these external needs and expectations be included in the scope of the environmental management system, they become requirements to be complied with in much the same way as compliance to laws. The authors assert that the recent changes to ISO 14001 introduce an ethical dimension to the standard. The authors assert that business ethics as a discipline now finds relevance in ISO 14001 via contemporary stakeholder theory and discourse ethics. Finally, the authors postulate implications of (not) addressing these requirements before July 2018 when transition to the revised standard must be complete globally.

Keywords: Business Ethics, Environmental Ethics, ethics practice, ISO 14001:2015

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