Oustani Mabrouka

Abstracts

2 Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes of Organic Fertilizers after Compositing Processes under Arid Conditions

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Med Tahar

Abstract:

The physico-chemical properties of poultry droppings indicate that this waste can be an excellent way to enrich the soil with low fertility that is the case in arid soils (low organic matter content), but its concentrations in some microbial and chemical components make them potentially dangerous and toxic contaminants if they are used directly in fresh state. On other hand, the accumulation of plant residues in the crop areas can become a source of plant disease and affects the quality of the environment. The biotechnological processes that we have identified appear to alleviate these problems. It leads to the stabilization and processing of wastes into a product of good hygienic quality and high fertilizer value by the composting test. In this context, a trial was conducted in composting operations in the region of Ouargla located in southern Algeria. Composing test was conducted in a completely randomized design experiment. Three mixtures were prepared, in pits of 1 m3 volume for each mixture. Each pit is composed by mixture of poultry droppings and crushed plant residues in amount of 40 and 60% respectively: C1: Droppings + Straw (P.D +S) , C2: Poultry Droppings + Olive Wastes (P.D+O.W) , C3: Poultry Droppings + Date palm residues (P.D+D.P). Before and after the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 90 days. The results of physico-chemical and microbiological compost obtained from three mixtures: C1: (P.D +S) , C2: (P.D+O.W) and C3: (P.D +D.P) shows at the end of composting process, three composts characterized by the final products were characterized by their high agronomic and environmental interest with a good physico chemical characteristics in particularly a low C/N ratio with 15.15, 10.01 and 15.36 % for (P.D + S), (P.D. + O.W) and (P.D. +D.P), respectively, reflecting a stabilization and maturity of the composts. On the other hand, a significant increase of temperature was recorded at the first days of composting for all treatments, which is correlated with a strong reduction of the pathogenic micro flora contained in poultry dropings.

Keywords: Composting, straw, Arid environment, Date palm residues, Olive wastes, Pathogenic microorganisms, Poultry Droppings

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1 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Microorganisms, Organic Matter, Salinity, Mineralization, arid regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 146