Muhammad Atif Randhawa


5 Exploring the Effect of Cellulose Based Coating Incorporated with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on Shelf Life Extension of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata blanco) Cultivar

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa


Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is nutritious and perishable fruit with high juice content, and also rich source of vitamin-C. In Pakistan, kinnow export is limited due to inadequate post-harvest handling and lack of satisfactory storage practices. Considering these issues, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating in combination with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on shelf life extension of kinnow. Fruits were treated with different levels of CaCl2 and MgSO4 followed by HPMC coating (3 and 5%) and stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity for 6 weeks. Fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters on weekly basis. During this study lower fruit firmness (0.24Nm-2), loss in weight (0.64%) and ethylene production (0.039 µL•kg-1•hr-1) was observed in fruits treated with 1% CaCl2 + 1% MgSO4 + 5% HPMC (T6) during storage of 42 days. Minimum chilling injury indexes 0.22% and 0.61% were recorded in treatments T4 and T6, respectively. T6 showed higher values of titerable acidity (0.29%) and ascorbic acid contents (39.82mg/100g). Minimum TSS (9.62°Brix) was found in fruits of T6. Overall T6 showed significantly better results for various parameters, as compared to all other treated and control fruits.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, firmness, kinnow coating

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4 Exploring the Physicochemical and Quality Attributes of Potato Cultivars during Subsequent Storage

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad


Potato (Solanum tuberosum) popularly known as ‘the king of vegetables’, has emerged as fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Potato contains carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants of potatoes especially vitamin C helps in reducing cancer, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure by binding free radicals. Physical characteristics and some major chemical properties of potato tubers at fresh and stored stages were investigated. Two varieties of potatoes, Sante (V1) having white colour and Lal moti (V2) with red colour were stored for 3 months and analysis were performed after each month interval. Physical and chemical attributes including weight loss, sprouting, specific gravity, pH, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugars) and vitamin C were analyzed before and after storage. Value of weight loss at zero day was null but it increased to 6.45% after 90 days on average in both cultivars and sprouting increased gradually at the end of 90 days. Moreover total sugars were 3.10% at zero day but increased to 9.30% after 90 days. Ascorbic acid was decreased during storage from 17.49(mg/100g) to 3.79. Both varieties of potato were stored at 60C and 120C temperatures with 85% relative humidity in order to prolong their acceptability in the market. The storage conditions influence the potatoes quality and consequently their acceptability to consumer. The data was analyzed statistically and clarifies that total sugars, weight loss, sprouting and specific gravity increase during the storage period while ascorbic acid (Vit-C) and pH decreased. Among both varieties that were stored at 60C and 120C, Sante (V1) was better than Lal moti (V2) due to less physicochemical and quality changes at 60C as compared to store at 120C.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, potato, quality attributes

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3 Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environments and Their Dietary Intake Assessment

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad


Assessment of insecticides used for growing vegetables in comparison with their safety status was the main purpose of this study. A total of 180 samples of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) comprising 30 samples of each vegetable were collected from the peri-urban farming system of Multan, Faisalabad and Gujranwala. The mean value for imidacloprid residues found in brinjal (0.226 mg kg-1) and okra (0.176 mg kg-1) from Multan region were greater than the residues reported from Gujranwala and Faisalabad, showing excessive application of imidacloprid in Multan. Out of total 180 samples analysed for imidacloprid and acetamaprid residues, (90 samples for each of okra and brinjal), 104 (58%) and 117 (65%) samples contained detectable imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues, respectively. Whereas 10% and 15% samples exceeded their respective MRLs for imidacloprid and acetamiprid residues. Dietary intake assessment for imidacloprid and acetamiprid was calculated according to their MPI values 3.84 and 4.48 mg person-1day-1, respectively. The dietary intake assessment data revealed that although a reasonable proportion of samples exceeded the MRLs in studied areas but their consumption was found within safe limit in comparison to values obtained for MPI.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, Insecticides, Vegetables, Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), Maximum Residual Limits (MRLs)

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2 Storage Influence on Physico-Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Jamun Drink Prepared From Two Types of Pulp

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Mahreen Akhtar, Sidrah


In this paper, Jamun (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae) drink enriched with jamun pulp and seed was assessed for different physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, pH, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total sugars and reducing sugars) and phytochemical aspects at every 15 days interval till 60 days storage period. Jamun pulp both with seed and without seed were used at levels of 7, 10 and 13 percent to prepare jamun drink in six combinations; T1 (7% pulp without seed), T2 (10% pulp without seed), T3 (13% pulp without seed), T4 (7% pulp with seed), T5 (10% pulp with seed), T6 (13% pulp with seed). Storage period resulted decrease in pH (4.18 to 4.08) and ascorbic acid (21.92%) significantly along with phenolic contents (6.13 to 4.85g of GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (70.68 to 48.62 percent) within treatments. All treatments showed significant increases in total sugars (11.59 to 11.80%), reducing sugars (2.30 to 2.50%), TSS (12.2 to 13.32 °B) and acidity (0.23% to 0.31%) during storage. Treatments T3, T5 and T6 showed best results in terms of all physicochemical parameters during storage. Statistically significant differences were obtained among sensory parameters as a function of pulp type and concentration, while treatment T5 (10% pulp with seed) obtained highest score (7.16) in terms of all sensory parameters. It can be concluded that nutrient rich jamun drink can be prepared as an attempt to add value to the underutilized jamun fruit of Pakistan.

Keywords: Storage, antioxidant activity, physicochemical, Jamun beverage

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1 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Muhammad Saeed, Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa


Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: yoghurt, sensory evaluation, inulin, low fat, fat replacer

Procedia PDF Downloads 383