Abdelmajid Abid


2 The Palm Oil in Food Products: Frequency of Consumption and Composition

Authors: Kamilia Ounaissa, Sarra Fennira, Asma Ben Brahim, Marwa Omri, Abdelmajid Abid


The palm oil is the vegetable oil the most used by the food-processing industry in the world. It is chosen for its economic and technologic advantages. However, this oil arouses the debate because of its high content in saturated fatty acids, which are fats promoting atherosclerosis. Purposes of the work: To study the frequency and the rate of consumption of industrial products containing some palm oil and specify the rate of this oil in certain consummated products. Methodology: We proceeded to a consumer survey using a questionnaire collecting a list of food containing the palm oil, sold on the Tunisian market. We then analyzed the most consumed food to specify their fat content by “Soxhelt’s” method. Finally, we studied the composition in various fatty acids of the extracted fat using the chromatography in the gas phase (CPG) Results: Our results show that investigated individuals having a normal weight have a more important and more frequent consumption of products rich in palm oil than overweight subjects. The most consumed foods are biscuits, cakes, wafers, chocolates, chips, cereal, creams to be spread and canned pilchard. The content in palm oil of these products varies from 10 % to 31 %. The analysis by CPG showed an important content in saturated fatty acid, in particular in palmitic acid, ranging from 40 % to 63 % of the fat of these products. Conclusion: Our study shows a high frequency of consumption of food products, the analysis of which proved a high content in palm oil. Theses facts justifies the necessity of a regulation of the use of palm oil in food products and the application of a label detailing the type and fat rates used.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Food industry, Fatty Acids, palm oil, palmitic acid

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1 The Impact of the Method of Extraction on 'Chemchali' Olive Oil Composition in Terms of Oxidation Index, and Chemical Quality

Authors: Om Kalthoum Sallem, Saidakilani, Kamiliya Ounaissa, Abdelmajid Abid


Introduction and purposes: Olive oil is the main oil used in the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is valued for its organoleptic and nutritional characteristics and is resistant to oxidation due to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFAs), and low polyunsaturates (PUFAs) and the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenols, tocopherols and carotenoids. The fatty acid composition, especially the MUFA content, and the natural antioxidants provide advantages for health. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of method of extraction on the chemical profiles of ‘Chemchali’ olive oil variety, which is cultivated in the city of Gafsa, and to compare it with chetoui and chemchali varieties. Methods: Our study is a qualitative prospective study that deals with ‘Chemchali’ olive oil variety. Analyses were conducted during three months (from December to February) in different oil mills in the city of Gafsa. We have compared ‘Chemchali’ olive oil obtained by continuous method to this obtained by superpress method. Then we have analyzed quality index parameters, including free fatty acid content (FFA), acidity, and UV spectrophotometric characteristics and other physico-chemical data [oxidative stability, ß-carotene, and chlorophyll pigment composition]. Results: Olive oil resulting from super press method compared with continuous method is less acid(0,6120 vs. 0,9760), less oxydazible(K232:2,478 vs. 2,592)(k270:0,216 vs. 0,228), more rich in oleic acid(61,61% vs. 66.99%), less rich in linoleic acid(13,38% vs. 13,98 %), more rich in total chlorophylls pigments (6,22 ppm vs. 3,18 ppm ) and ß-carotene (3,128 mg/kg vs. 1,73 mg/kg). ‘Chemchali’ olive oil showed more equilibrated total content in fatty acids compared with the varieties ’Chemleli’ and ‘Chetoui’. Gafsa’s variety ’Chemlali’ have significantly less saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Whereas it has a higher content in monounsaturated fatty acid C18:2, compared with the two other varieties. Conclusion: The use of super press method had benefic effects on general chemical characteristics of ‘Chemchali’ olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to the ecocert legal standards. In light of the results obtained in this study, a more detailed study is required to establish whether the differences in the chemical properties of oils are mainly due to agronomic and climate variables or, to the processing employed in oil mills.

Keywords: Fatty Acids, olive oil, extraction method, chemchali olive oil

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