Chee Keong Chen


3 Effects of Acacia Honey Drink Ingestion during Rehydration after Exercise Compared to Sports Drink on Physiological Parameters and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat

Authors: Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen, Aidi Naim Mohamad Samsani, Mohamed Saat Ismail


Introduction: Prolonged exercise in a hot and humid environment can result in glycogen depletion and associated with loss of body fluid. Carbohydrate contained in sports beverages is beneficial for improving sports performance and preventing dehydration. Carbohydrate contained in honey is believed can be served as an alternative form of carbohydrate for enhancing sports performance. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of honey drink compared to sports drink as a recovery aid for running performance and physiological parameters in the heat. Method: Ten male recreational athletes (age: 22.2 ± 2.0 years, VO2max: 51.5 ± 3.7 participated in this randomized cross-over study. On each trial, participants were required to run for 1 hour in the glycogen depletion phase (Run-1), followed by a rehydration phase for 2 hours and subsequently a 20 minutes time trial performance (Run-2). During Run-1, subjects were required to run on the treadmill in the heat (31°C) with 70% relative humidity at 70 % of their VO2max. During rehydration phase, participants drank either honey drink or sports drink, or plain water with amount equivalent to 150% of body weight loss in dispersed interval (60 %, 50 % and 40 %) at 0 min, 30 min and 60 min respectively. Subsequently, time trial was performed by the participants in 20 minutes and the longest distance covered was recorded. Physiological parameters were analysed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and time trial performance was analysed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Result showed that Acacia honey elicited a better time trial performance with significantly longer distance compared to water trial (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Acacia honey and sport drink trials (P > 0.05). Acacia honey and sports drink trials elicited 249 m (8.24 %) and 211 m (6.79 %) longer in distance compared to the water trial respectively. For physiological parameters, plasma glucose, plasma insulin and plasma free fatty acids in Acacia honey and sports drink trials were significantly higher compared to the water trial respectively during rehydration phase and time trial running performance phase. There were no significant differences in body weight changes, oxygen uptake, hematocrit, plasma volume changes and plasma cortisol in all the trials. Conclusion: Acacia honey elicited greatest beneficial effects on sports performance among the drinks, thus it has potential to be used for rehydration in athletes who train and compete in hot environment.

Keywords: sports performance, rehydration, honey drink, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, plasma cortisol

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2 Effects of 8-Week Bee Bread Supplementation on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power in Young Athletes

Authors: Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen, Fadzel Wong Chee Ping, Mahaneem Mohamed


Introduction: To date, information on the effects of bee bread supplementation on isokinetic muscular performance are lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of 8-week bee bread supplementation on isokinetic muscular strength and power in young athletes. Methodology: Twelve male athletes (age: 24.0±1.8 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 1.3 kg.m-2; VO2max: 52.0 ± 2.8 were recruited in this randomised double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Participants consumed either bee bread at a dosage of 20 g.d-1 or placebo for 8 weeks. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure participants’ lower limb muscular strength and power prior (pre-test) and post (post-test) 8 weeks of experimental period. Testing angular velocities were set at 180o.s-1 and 300o.s-1 to determine knee flexion and extension muscular peak torque (an indicator of muscular strength) and average power of the participants. Statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA with repeated measures. Results: Isokinetic knee extension peak torque and average power at 180o.s-1, and isokinetic knee flexion peak torque and average power at 180o.s-1 were significantly (p<0.05) higher at post-test compared to pre-test with bee bread supplementation. However, significant differences were not observed in the measured parameters between pre- and post-test with placebo supplementation. Conclusion: Supplementation of bee bread for 8 weeks at a dosage of 20 g daily increased some of the measured isokinetic muscular strength and power parameters in young athletes.

Keywords: Power, Strength, isokinetic, bee bread

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1 To What Extent Does Physical Activity and Standard of Competition Affect Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) Measurements of Bone in Accordance with Muscular Strength and Anthropometrics in British Young Males?

Authors: Joseph Shanks, Matthew Taylor, Foong Kiew Ooi, Chee Keong Chen


Introduction: Evidences of relationship between bone, muscle and standard of competition among young British population is limited in literature. The current literature recognises the independent and synergistic effects of fat free and fat mass as the stimulus for osteogenesis. This study assessed the extent to which physical activity (PA) and standard of competition (CS) influences quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone on a cross-sectional basis accounting for muscular strength and anthropometrics in British young males. Methods: Pre-screening grouped 66 males aged 18-25 years into controls (n=33) and district level athletes (DLAs) (n=33) as well as low (n=21), moderate (n=23) and high (n=22) physical activity categories (PACs). All participants underwent QUS measurements of bone (4 sites, i.e. dominant distal radius (DR), dominant mid-shaft tibia (DT), non-dominant distal radius (NR) and non-dominant mid-shaft tibia (NT)), isokinetic strength tests (dominant and non-dominant knee flexion and extension) and anthropometric measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between any of the groups with respect to QUS measurements of bone at all sites with regards to PACs or CS. Significant higher isokinetic strength values were observed in DLAs than controls (p < 0.05), and higher than low PACs (p < 0.05) at 60o.s-1 of concentric and eccentric measurements. No differences in subcutaneous fat thickness were found between all the groups (CS or PACs). Percentages of body fat were significantly higher (p < .05) in low than high PACs and CS groups. There were significant positive relationships between non dominant radial speed of sound and fat free mass at both DR (r=0.383, p=0.001) and NR (r=0.319, p=0.009) sites in all participants. Conclusion: The present study findings indicated that muscular strength and body fat are closely related to physical activity level and standard of competition. However, bone health status reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone is not related to physical activity level and standard of competition in British young males.

Keywords: Physical Activity, Bone, Muscular Strength, standard of competition

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