Adnan I. O. Zaid


5 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: Fatigue, Titanium, Aluminum, vanadium, grain refinement, titanium+boron

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4 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: Microstructure, mechanical characteristics, grain refinement, rare earth elements, addition, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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3 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat


Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: Ductility, direct extrusion, cast condition, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

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2 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah


Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: Aluminum, Wear Resistance, mechanical characteristics, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, direct extrusion

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1 The Use of Superplastic Tin-Lead Alloy as A solid Lubricant in Free Upsetting of Aluminum and Brass

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Hebah B. Melhem, Ahmad Qandil


The main function of a lubricant in any forming process is to reduce friction between the work piece and the die set, hence reducing the force and energy requirement for forming process and to achieve homogeneous deformation. The free upsetting test is an important open forging test. In this paper, super plastic tin-lead alloy is used as solid lubricant in the free upsetting test of non-ferrous metals and compared with eight different lubricants using the following three criteria: one comparing the value of the reduction in height percentages, i.e. the engineering strain, in identical specimens of the same material under the effect of the same compressive force. The second is comparing the amount of barreling produced in each of the identical specimens, at each lubricant. The third criterion is using the specific energy, i.e. the energy per unit volume consumed in forming each material, using the different lubricants to produce the same reduction in height percentage of identical specimens from each of the two materials, namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work namely: aluminum and brass. It was found that the super plastic tin-lead alloy lubricant has produced higher values of reductions in height percentage and less barreling in the two non-ferrous materials, used in this work, under the same compression force among the different used lubricants.

Keywords: Aluminum, brass, different lubricants, free upsetting, solid lubricants, superplastic tin-lead alloy

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