Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

Abstracts

3 Isolation, Identification and Screening of Marine Fungi for Potential Tyrosinase Inhibitor, Antibacterial and Antioxidant for Future Cosmeceuticals

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. To identify new bioactive cosmetics ingredients of marine microbial bioresource, we screened 35 marine fungi isolated from marine samples collected from Andaman Island and west coast of India. Fungal crude extracts were investigated for their antityrosinase, antioxidant and antibacterial activities for the purpose of identifying anti-aging, skin-whitening and anti-acne biomolecule with the potential in cosmetics. In the tyrosinase inhibition and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assays, two fungal extracts, including “P2”, Talaromyces stipitatus and “D4”, Aspergillus terreus showed high inhibitory activity at 1mg/mL for tyrosinase inhibition and 0.5mg/mL for DPPH scavenging. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated by the agar well diffusion method. In the tyrosinase inhibition assay, 8 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain “D5” was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Further investigations will focus on purification and characterization major active components responsible for these activities.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, marine fungi, tyrosinase, cosmeceuticals

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2 Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Fungi from Indian Marine Environments: A Possible Alternative for New Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin Microbial Infections

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

Millions of people worldwide are affected by infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) represent a significant category of infectious disease. Unexpectedly, many pathogens have developed resistance towards current antibiotics and over the time this problem has become more and more serious. All these new problems necessitate the continuous search for novel and alternative antibiotics and antifungals. The aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine fungi for their antibacterial activity against bacteria causing skin and wound infection in humans. A total of 40 marine samples were collected from west coast and Andaman Island of India and 35 morphologically different marine fungi were isolated using natural sea water medium. Among 35 marine fungi, eight isolates exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. In the course of systematic screening program for bioactive marine fungi, strain 'D5' was found to be most potent strain with MIC value of 1 mg/mL, which was morphologically identified as Simplicillium lamellicola. The effects of the most active crude extracts against their susceptible test microorganisms were also investigated by SEM analysis. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process. The results of diversity and antimicrobial activity have increased the scope of finding industrially important marine fungi from Indian marine environments and these organisms could be vital sources for the discovery of pharmaceutically useful molecules.

Keywords: Antibiotic, Antimicrobial activity, Skin Infections, marine fungi

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1 Anti-Tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Marine Fungal Extracts

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Sunil Kumar Deshmukh, Colin Barrow, Alok Adholeya

Abstract:

A variety of genetic and environmental factors cause various cosmetics and dermatological problems. There are already claimed drugs available in market for treating these problems. However, the challenge remains in finding more potent, environmental friendly, causing minimal side effects and economical cosmeceuticals. This leads to an increased demand for natural cosmeceutical products in the last few decades. Plant derived ingredients are limited because plants either contain toxic metabolites, grow too slow or seasonal harvesting is a problem. The research work carried out in this project aims at isolation, characterization of marine fungal secondary metabolite and evaluating their potential use in future cosmetic skin care products. We have isolated and purified 35 morphologically different fungal isolates from various marine habitats of the India. These isolates have been functionally characterized for anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and anti-acne activities. For molecular characterization, the Internal Transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 15 functionally active marine fungal isolates was amplified using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4 and sequenced. Out of 15 marine fungal isolates crude extract of strains D4 (Aspergillus terreus) and P2 (Talaromyces stipitatus) showed 70% and 57% tyrosinase inhibition at 1mg/mL respectively. Strain D5 (Simplicillium lamellicola) has showed significant inhibition against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, all these strains also displayed DPPH- radical scavenging activity and may be utilized as skin cosmeceutical applications. Purification and characterization of crude extracts for identification of active lead molecule is under process.

Keywords: marine fungi, anti-acne, anti-tyrosinase, cosmeceutical

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