Singh Deepeshwar

Abstracts

2 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

Abstract:

Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: Brain, Walking, Meditation, Yoga, hemodynamic responses, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), heart rate variability (HRV)

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1 Bilateral Hemodynamic Responses on Prefrontal Cortex during Voluntary Regulated Breathing (Pranayama) Practices: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, Suhas Vinchurkar

Abstract:

Similar to neuroimaging findings through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessing regional cerebral blood oxygenation, the functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has also been used to assess hemodynamic responses in the imaged region of the brain. The present study assessed hemodynamic responses in terms of changes in oxygenation (HbO), deoxygenation (HbR) and total hemoglobin (THb) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), bilaterally, using fNIRS in 10 participants who performed three voluntary regulated breathing (pranayama) practices viz. (i) Left nostril breathing (LNB), (ii) Right nostril breathing (RNB); and (iii) Alternating nostril breathing (ANB) and compared with normal breathing as baseline (BS). For this, we used 64 channel NIRS system covering left and the right prefrontal cortex. The normal breathing kept as baseline (BS) measures as regressors in the investigation of hemodynamic responses when compared with LNB, RNB and ANB. In the results, we found greater oxygenation in contralateral side i.e., higher activation on the left prefrontal cortex (lPFC) during RNB, and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) during LNB, whereas ANB showed greater deoxygenation responses on both sides of PFC. Interestingly, LNB showed increased oxygenation on ipsilateral side i.e., lPFC but not during RNB. This suggests that voluntary regulated breathing produced an immediate effect not only on contralateral but ipsilateral sides of the brain as well. In conclusion, breathing practices are tightly coupled to cerebral rhythms of alternating cerebral hemispheric activity during particular nostril breathing. These results of the specific nostril breathing do not support previous findings of contralateral hemispheric improvement while left or right nostril breathing only.

Keywords: Brain, pranayama, prefrontal cortex, hemodynamic responses, voluntary regulated breathing practices

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