Abdul M. Khan


2 First Record of Eotragus noyei from the Middle Siwalik Dhok Pathan Formation of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Akhtar, Abdul M. Khan, Ayesha Iqbal, Hafiza I. Naz


The fossil remains described in this study have been recovered during fieldwork by the authors from the Dhok Pathan Formation of Middle Siwaliks Pakistan in December, 2015. The sample comprises maxillary and mandibular fragments along with isolated upper and lower teeth. The morphometric analysis of the specimens led us to recognize the sample as belonging to Eotragus noyei, which has been considered as the smallest and the oldest bovid in the Siwaliks. Eotragus noyei is characterized by brachydont teeth, finely rugose enamel, more inclined buccal walls of the molars and small lingual cingula. The inclination of the metaconal area has caused rotation of the metastyle in relation to the antero-posterior tooth axis and thus situated more lingually. The protocone in second upper premolar is well developed and situated posteriorly and also has an anterior lingual constriction. The metaconule in the third upper molar is smaller than the protocone. The dentition in Eotragus noyei is smaller in size as compared to Eotragus sansaniensis and Eotragus lampangensis. In Eotragus noyei the buccal walls in molars are more inclined while in Eotragus sansaniensis they are less inclined. The genus Eotragus has been reported previously in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan; however, the recognition of the present sample as Eotragus noyei has extended the range of this species from Lower to the Middle Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Keywords: late Miocene, Dhok Pathan, Boselaphini, Chakwal

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1 Description of Anthracotheriidae Remains from the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Abdul M. Khan, Ayesha Iqbal


In this paper, new dental remains of Merycopotamus (Anthracotheriidae) are described. The specimens were collected during field work by the authors from the well dated fossiliferous locality 'Hasnot' belonging to the Dhok Pathan Formation, and from 'Tatrot' village belonging to Tatrot Formation of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. The stratigraphic age of the Neogene deposits around Hasnot is 7 - 5 Ma; whereas the age of the Tatrot Formation is from 3.4 - 2.6 Ma. The newly discovered material when compared with the previous records of the genus Merycopotamus from the Siwaliks led us to identify all the three reported species of this genus from the Siwaliks of Pakistan. As the sample comprises only the dental remains so the identification of the specimens is solely based upon the morpho-metric analysis. The occlusal pattern of the upper molar in Merycopotamus dissimilis is different from Merycopotamus medioximus and Merycopotamus nanus in having a mesostyle fully divided, forming two prominent cusps, while mesostyle in M. medioximus is partly divided and small lateral crests are present on the mesostyle. A continuous loop like mesostyle is present in Merycopotamus nanus. The entoconid fold is present in Merycopotamus dissimilis on the lower molars whereas it is absent in Merycopotamus medioximus and Merycopotamus nanus. The hypoconulid in M. dissimilis is relatively simple but a loop like hypoconulid is present in M. medioximus and M. nanus. The results of the present findings are in line with the previous records of the genus Merycopotamus, with M. nanus, M. medioximus and M. dissimilis in the Late Miocene – Early Pliocene Dhok Pathan Formation, and M. dissimilis in the Late Pliocene Tatrot sediments of Pakistan.

Keywords: Pliocene, late Miocene, Dhok Pathan, merycopotamus, Tatrot

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