Sonal Gupta


2 A Study of Anthraquinone Dye Removal by Using Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Pyar S. Jassal, Neema Chand, Rajni Johar


In present study, Low molecular weight chitosan naoparticles (LMWCNP) were synthesized by using low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) and sodium tripolyphosphate for the adsorption of anthraquinone dyes from waste water. The ionic-gel technique was used for this purpose. Size of nanoparticles was determined by “Scherrer equation”. The absorbance was carried out with UV-visible spectrophotometer for Acid Green 25 (AG25) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) dyes solutions at λmax 644 and λmax 598 nm respectively. The removal of dyes was dependent on the pH and the optimum adsorption was between pH 2 to 9. The extraction of dyes was linearly dependent on temperature. The equilibrium parameters, RL was calculated by using the Langmuir isotherm and shows that adsorption of dyes is favorable on the LMWCNP. The XRD images of LMWC show a crystalline nature whereas LMWCNP is amorphous one. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that LMWCNP thermally more stable than LMWC. As the contact time increases, percentage removal of Acid Green 25 and Reactive Blue 4 dyes also increases. TEM images reveal the size of the LMWCNP were in the range of 45-50 nm. The capacity of AG25 dye on LMWC was 5.23 mg/g, it compared with LMWCNP capacity which was 6.83 mg/g respectively. The capacity of RB4 dye on LMWC was 2.30 mg/g and 2.34 mg/g was on LMWCNP.

Keywords: adsorption isotherm, removal efficiency, low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles, anthraquinone dye

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1 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang


Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: Surfactants, Nanoemulsion, cell viability, MTT, ultrasonication, microemulsion

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