Lei Xu


6 Human-Machine Cooperation in Facial Comparison Based on Likelihood Scores

Authors: Lei Xu, Lanchi Xie, Zhihui Li, Zhigang Li, Guiqiang Wang, Yuwen Yan


Image-based facial features can be classified into category recognition features and individual recognition features. Current automated face recognition systems extract a specific feature vector of different dimensions from a facial image according to their pre-trained neural network. However, to improve the efficiency of parameter calculation, an algorithm generally reduces the image details by pooling. The operation will overlook the details concerned much by forensic experts. In our experiment, we adopted a variety of face recognition algorithms based on deep learning, compared a large number of naturally collected face images with the known data of the same person's frontal ID photos. Downscaling and manual handling were performed on the testing images. The results supported that the facial recognition algorithms based on deep learning detected structural and morphological information and rarely focused on specific markers such as stains and moles. Overall performance, distribution of genuine scores and impostor scores, and likelihood ratios were tested to evaluate the accuracy of biometric systems and forensic experts. Experiments showed that the biometric systems were skilled in distinguishing category features, and forensic experts were better at discovering the individual features of human faces. In the proposed approach, a fusion was performed at the score level. At the specified false accept rate, the framework achieved a lower false reject rate. This paper contributes to improving the interpretability of the objective method of facial comparison and provides a novel method for human-machine collaboration in this field.

Keywords: Biometrics, likelihood ratio, automated facial recognition, facial comparison

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5 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao, Yingjie Feng


In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: Urbanization, Singapore, floating population, social integration, public housing

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4 Fengqiao: An Ongoing Experiment with 'UrbanMemory' Theory in an Ancient Town and ItsDesign Experience

Authors: Lei Xu, Yibei Ye, Zhenyu Cao


Ancient town is a unique carrier of urban culture, maintaining the core culture of a region and continuing the urban context. Fengqiao, a nearly 2000-year-old town was on the brink of dilapidation in the past few decades. The town faced such problems as poor construction quality, environmental degeneration, inadequate open space, cultural characteristics and industry vitality. Therefore, the research upholds the principle of ‘organic renewal’ and puts forward three practical updated strategies which are ‘Repair Old as Ever,' ‘Activate Function’ and ‘Fill in with The New’. Also as a participant in updating the design, the author aims to ‘keep the memory of the history and see the development of the present’ as the goal of updating the design and regards the process of town renewal as the experimental venue for realizing this purpose. The research will sum up innovations on the designing process and the engineering progress in the past two years, and find out the innovation experiment and the effect of its implementation on the methodological level of the organic renewal design in Fengqiao ancient town. From here, we can also enjoy the very characteristic development trend presented by China in the design practice of the organic renewal in the ancient town.

Keywords: Urban Memory, characteristic town, Fengqiao, organic renewal

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3 A Golay Pair Based Synchronization Algorithm for Distributed Multiple-Input Multiple-Output System

Authors: Lei Xu, Weizhi Zhong, Xiaoyi Lu


In order to solve the problem of inaccurate synchronization for distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in multipath environment, a golay pair aided timing synchronization method is proposed in this paper. A new synchronous training sequence based on golay pair is designed. By utilizing the aperiodic auto-correlation complementary property of the new training sequence, the fine timing point is obtained at the receiver. Simulation results show that, compared with the tradition timing synchronization approaches, the proposed algorithm can provide high accuracy in synchronization, especially under multipath condition.

Keywords: Synchronization, distributed MIMO system, golay pair, multipath

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2 The Renewal of Chinese Urban Village on Cultural Ecology: Hubei Village as an Example

Authors: Lei Xu, Shaojun Zheng, Yunzi Wang


The main purpose of the research is to use the cultural ecology to analyze the renewal of Shenzhen urban village in the process of China's urbanization and to evaluate and guide the renewal, which will combine the society value and economic efficiency and activate urban villages. The urban village has a long history. There are also many old buildings, various residents, and a strong connection with the surrounding environment. Cultural ecology, which uses the knowledge of ecology to study culture, provides us a cultural perspective in the renewal. We take Hubei village in Shenzhen as our example. By using cultural ecology, we find a new way dealing with the relationship between culture and other factors. It helps us to give the buildings and space the culture meanings from different scales. It enables us to find a unique development pattern of urban village. After analyzing several famous cultural blocks cases, we find it is possible to connect the unique culture of urban village with the renovation of its buildings, community, and commerce. We propose the following strategies with specific target: 1. Building renovation: We repair and rebuild the origin buildings as little as possible, and retain the original urban space tissue as much as possible to keep the original sense of place and the cultural atmosphere. 2. Community upgrade: We reshape the village stream, fix the original function, add event which will activate people to complete the existing cultural circle 3. District commerce: We implant food and drink district, boutique commercial, and creative industries, to make full use of the historical atmosphere of the site to enhance the culture feelings For the renewal of a seemingly chaotic mixed urban village, it is important to break out from the conventional practices of building shopping malls or residential towers. Without creating those building landmarks, cultural ecology activates the urban village by exploiting its unique culture, which makes the old and new combine and becomes a new stream of energy, forming the new cultural, commercial and stylish landmark of the city.

Keywords: Cultural Ecology, combination, renewal, urban village

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1 Towards a Sustainable High Population Density Urban Intertextuality – Program Re-Configuration Integrated Urban Design Study in Hangzhou, China

Authors: Xuan Li, Lei Xu


By the end of 2014, China has an urban population of 749 million, reaching the urbanization rate of 54.77%. Dense and vertical urban structure has become a common choice for China and most of the densely populated Asian countries for sustainable development. This paper focuses on the most conspicuous urban change period in China, from 2000 to 2010, during which China's population shifted the fastest from rural region to cities. On one hand, the 200 million nationwide "new citizen" along with the 456 million "old citizen" explored in the new-century city for new urban lifestyle and livable built environment; On the other hand, however, large-scale rapid urban constructions are confined to the methods of traditional two-dimensional architectural thinking. Human-oriented design and system thinking have been missing in this intricate postmodern urban condition. This phenomenon, especially the gap and spark between the solid, huge urban physical system and the rich, subtle everyday urban life, will be studied in depth: How the 20th-century high-rise residential building "spontaneously" turned into an old but expensive multi-functional high-rise complex in the 21st century city center; how 21st century new/late 20th century old public buildings with the same function integrated their different architectural forms into the new / old city center? Finally the paper studies cases in Hangzhou: 1) Function Evolve–downtown high-rise residential building “International Garden” and “Zhongshan Garden” (1999). 2) Form Compare–Hangzhou Theater (1998) vs Hangzhou Grand Theatre (2004), Hangzhou City Railway Station (1999) vs Hangzhou East Railway Station (2013). The research aims at the exploring the essence of city from the building form dispel and urban program re-configuration approach, gaining a better consideration of human behavior through compact urban design effort for improving urban intertextuality, searching for a sustainable development path in the crucial time of urban population explosion in China.

Keywords: architecture form dispel, compact urban design, urban intertextuality, urban program re-configuration

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