S. Rajkumar


4 Determining the Thermal Performance and Comfort Indices of a Naturally Ventilated Room with Reduced Density Reinforced Concrete Wall Construction over Conventional M-25 Grade Concrete

Authors: S. Rajkumar, P. Crosby, Shiva Krishna Pavuluri


Purpose: Occupied built-up space can be broadly classified as air-conditioned and naturally ventilated. Regardless of the building type, the objective of all occupied built-up space is to provide a thermally acceptable environment for human occupancy. Considering this aspect, air-conditioned spaces allow a greater degree of flexibility to control and modulate the comfort parameters during the operation phase. However, in the case of naturally ventilated space, a number of design features favoring indoor thermal comfort should be mandatorily conceptualized starting from the design phase. One such primary design feature that requires to be prioritized is, selection of building envelope material, as it decides the flow of energy from outside environment to occupied spaces. Research Methodology: In India and many countries across globe, the standardized material used for building envelope is re-enforced concrete (i.e. M-25 grade concrete). The comfort inside the RC built environment for warm & humid climate (i.e. mid-day temp of 30-35˚C, diurnal variation of 5-8˚C & RH of 70-90%) is unsatisfying to say the least. This study is mainly focused on reviewing the impact of mix design of conventional M25 grade concrete on inside thermal comfort. In this mix design, air entrainment in the range of 2000 to 2100 kg/m3 is introduced to reduce the density of M-25 grade concrete. Thermal performance parameters & indoor comfort indices are analyzed for the proposed mix and compared in relation to the conventional M-25 grade. There are diverse methodologies which govern indoor comfort calculation. In this study, three varied approaches specifically a) Indian Adaptive Thermal comfort model, b) Tropical Summer Index (TSI) c) Air temperature less than 33˚C & RH less than 70% to calculate comfort is adopted. The data required for the thermal comfort study is acquired by field measurement approach (i.e. for the new mix design) and simulation approach by using design builder (i.e. for the conventional concrete grade). Findings: The analysis points that the Tropical Summer Index has a higher degree of stringency in determining the occupant comfort band whereas also providing a leverage in thermally tolerable band over & above other methodologies in the context of the study. Another important finding is the new mix design ensures a 10% reduction in indoor air temperature (IAT) over the outdoor dry bulb temperature (ODBT) during the day. This translates to a significant temperature difference of 6 ˚C IAT and ODBT.

Keywords: Thermal comfort, Indian adaptive thermal comfort, indoor air temperature, tropical summer index

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3 PEINS: A Generic Compression Scheme Using Probabilistic Encoding and Irrational Number Storage

Authors: S. Rajkumar, P. Jayashree


With social networks and smart devices generating a multitude of data, effective data management is the need of the hour for networks and cloud applications. Some applications need effective storage while some other applications need effective communication over networks and data reduction comes as a handy solution to meet out both requirements. Most of the data compression techniques are based on data statistics and may result in either lossy or lossless data reductions. Though lossy reductions produce better compression ratios compared to lossless methods, many applications require data accuracy and miniature details to be preserved. A variety of data compression algorithms does exist in the literature for different forms of data like text, image, and multimedia data. In the proposed work, a generic progressive compression algorithm, based on probabilistic encoding, called PEINS is projected as an enhancement over irrational number stored coding technique to cater to storage issues of increasing data volumes as a cost effective solution, which also offers data security as a secondary outcome to some extent. The proposed work reveals cost effectiveness in terms of better compression ratio with no deterioration in compression time.

Keywords: compression ratio, generic compression, irrational number storage, probabilistic encoding

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2 An Approximation Technique to Automate Tron

Authors: S. Rajkumar, P. Jayashree


With the trend of virtual and augmented reality environments booming to provide a life like experience, gaming is a major tool in supporting such learning environments. In this work, a variant of Voronoi heuristics, employing supervised learning for the TRON game is proposed. The paper discusses the features that would be really useful when a machine learning bot is to be used as an opponent against a human player. Various game scenarios, nature of the bot and the experimental results are provided for the proposed variant to prove that the approach is better than those that are currently followed.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Automation, Machine Learning, TRON game, Voronoi heuristics

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1 Silver Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Purification

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Rajkumar


Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known for their excellent antimicrobial agents, and thus can be used as alternative disinfectant agents. However, released silver nanoparticles is a threat to naturally occurring microorganisms. This paper exhibits information on the environmental fate, toxicological effects, and application of AgNP and the current estimate on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of AgNP in different aqueous solutions, as well as their application as alternative disinfectants in water-treatment systems. It also gives a better approximation and experimental data of AgNP’s antimicrobial properties at different water chemistry conditions. A saturation-type fitting curve was established, showing the survival of bacteria under different water chemistry conditions as a function of the size of the nanoparticles. The results obtained show that silver nanoparticles in surface water, ground water, and brackish water are stable. The paper demonstrates the comparative study of AgNP-impregnated point-of-use ceramic water filters and ceramic filters impregnated with silver nitrate. It is observed that AgNP-impregnated ceramic water filters are more appropriate for this application due to the lesser amount of silver desorbed. Experimental data of the comparison of a polymer-based quaternary amine functionalized silsesquioxanes compound and AgNP are also tabulated and conclusions are analysed with the goal of optimizing. The simplicity of synthesis and application of Silver nanoparticles enables us to consider its effective modified version for the purification of water.

Keywords: Water Treatment, nano particles, disinfectant agent, purification of water

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