Shaila Bahl

Abstracts

4 Investigating Nanocrystalline CaF2:Tm for Carbon Beam and Gamma Radiation Dosimetry

Authors: Kanika Sharma, A. Pandey, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, Birendra Singh

Abstract:

In the present investigation, initially nano-particles of CaF2 were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and later the prepared salt was activated by thulium (0.1 mol%) using the combustion technique. The final product was characterized and confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the nanophosphor were studied by irradiating it with 1.25 MeV of gamma radiation and 65 MeV of carbon (C6+) ion beam. For gamma rays, two prominent TL peaks were observed with a low temperature peak at around 1070C and a high temperature peak at around 1570C. Furthermore, the nanophosphor maintained a linear TL response for the entire range of studied doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2000 Gy for both the temperature peaks. Moreover, when the nanophosphor was irradiated with 65 MeV of C6+ ion beam the shape and structure of the glow curves remained spectacularly similar and the nanophosphor displayed a linear TL response for the full range of studied fluences i.e. 5*1010 ions/cm2 to 1 *1012 ions/ cm2. Finally, various tests like reproducibility test and batch homogeneity were also carried out to define the final product. Thus, co-precipitation method followed by combustion technique was successful in effectively producing dosimetric grade CaF2:Tm for dosimetry of gamma as well as carbon (C6+) beam.

Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, Gamma Radiation, nanocrystalline, ion beam

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3 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy

Authors: Kanika Sharma, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, Anant Pandey, Vibha Chopra, Birendra Singh

Abstract:

This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.

Keywords: Radiation Dosimetry, Thermoluminescence, Gamma Radiation, nanocrystalline

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2 Thermoluminescent Response of Nanocrystalline BaSO4:Eu to 85 MeV Carbon Beams

Authors: Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab

Abstract:

Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have attracted researchers from different fields, especially from the field of luminescence. Recent studies on various luminescent nanomaterials have shown their relevance in dosimetry of ionizing radiations for the measurements of high doses using the Thermoluminescence (TL) technique, where the conventional microcrystalline phosphors saturate. Ion beams have been used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes due to their favorable profile of dose deposition at the end of the range known as the Bragg peak. While dealing with human beings, doses from these beams need to be measured with great precision and accuracy. Henceforth detailed investigations of suitable thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for dose verification in ion beam irradiation are required. This paper investigates the TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4 doped with Eu to 85 MeV carbon beam. The synthesis was done using Co-precipitation technique by mixing Barium chloride and ammonium sulphate solutions. To investigate the crystallinity and particle size, analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used which revealed the average particle sizes to 45 nm with orthorhombic structure. Samples in pellet form were irradiated by 85 MeV carbon beam in the fluence range of 1X1010-5X1013. TL glow curves of the irradiated samples show two prominent glow peaks at around 460 K and 495 K. The TL response is linear up to 1X1013 fluence after which saturation was observed. The wider linear TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4: Eu and low fading make it a superior candidate as a dosimeter to be used for detecting the doses of carbon beam.

Keywords: Dosimetry, Radiation, Thermoluminescence, carbon ions

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1 Thermoluminescence Characteristic of Nanocrystalline BaSO4 Doped with Europium

Authors: Kanika S. Raheja, A. Pandey, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab

Abstract:

The subject of undertaking for this paper is the study of BaSO4 nanophosphor doped with Europium in which mainly the concentration of the rare earth impurity Eu (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mol %) has been varied. A comparative study of the thermoluminescence(TL) properties of the given nanophosphor has also been done using a well-known standard dosimetry material i.e. TLD-100.Firstly, a number of samples were prepared successfully by the chemical co-precipitation method. The whole lot was then compared to a well established standard material (TLD-100) for its TL sensitivity property. BaSO4:Eu ( 0.2 mol%) showed the highest sensitivity out of the lot. It was also found that when compared to the standard TLD-100, BaSo4:Eu (0.2mol%) showed surprisingly high sensitivity for a large range of doses. The TL response curve for all prepared samples has also been studied over a wide range of doses i.e 10Gy to 2kGy for gamma radiation. Almost all the samples of BaSO4:Eu showed a remarkable linearity for a broad range of doses, which is a characteristic feature of a fine TL dosimeter. The graph remained linear even beyond 1kGy for gamma radiation. Thus, the given nanophosphor has been successfully optimised for the concentration of the dopant material to achieve its highest TL sensitivity. Further, the comparative study with the standard material revealed that the current optimised sample shows an astonishingly better TL sensitivity and a phenomenal linear response curve for an incredibly wide range of doses for gamma radiation (Co-60) as compared to the standard TLD-100, which makes the current optimised BaSo4:Eu quite promising as an efficient gamma radiation dosimeter. Lastly, the present phosphor has been optimised for its annealing temperature to acquire the best results while also studying its fading and reusability properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Radiation Dosimetry, Thermoluminescence, Gamma Radiation

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