Bruce Sithole

Abstracts

4 Optimization of Sodium Lauryl Surfactant Concentration for Nanoparticle Production

Authors: Bruce Sithole, Oluwatoyin Joseph Gbadeyan, Sarp Adali, Bright Glen

Abstract:

Sodium lauryl surfactant concentration optimization, for nanoparticle production, provided the platform for advanced research studies. Different concentrations (0.05 %, 0.1 %, and 0.2 %) of sodium lauryl surfactant was added to snail shells powder during milling processes for producing CaCO3 at smaller particle size. Epoxy nanocomposites prepared at filler content 2 wt.% synthesized with different volumes of sodium lauryl surfactant were fabricated using a conventional resin casting method. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, and hardness of prepared nanocomposites was investigated to determine the effect of sodium lauryl surfactant concentration on nanocomposite properties. It was observed that the loading of the synthesized nano-calcium carbonate improved the mechanical properties of neat epoxy at lower concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %. Meaningfully, loading of achatina fulica snail shell nanoparticles manufactures, with small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, increased the neat epoxy tensile strength by 26%, stiffness by 55%, and hardness by 38%. Homogeneous dispersion facilitated, by the addition of sodium lauryl surfactant during milling processes, improved mechanical properties. Research evidence suggests that nano-CaCO3, synthesized from achatina fulica snail shell, possesses suitable reinforcement properties that can be used for nanocomposite fabrication. The evidence showed that adding small concentrations of sodium lauryl surfactant 0.05 %, improved dispersion of nanoparticles in polymetrix material that provided mechanical properties improvement.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, sodium lauryl surfactant, achatina fulica snail shel, calcium carbonate nanopowder

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3 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan

Abstract:

The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: Cotton, Natural Dyes, mango, Eucalyptus, mordants, colour fastness

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2 A Review on Valorisation of Chicken Feathers: Current Status and Future Prospects

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

Worldwide, the poultry–processing industry generates large quantities of feather by-products that amount to 40 billion kilograms annually. The feathers are considered wastes although small amounts are often processed into valuable products such as feather meal and fertilizers. The remaining waste is disposed of by incineration or by burial in controlled landfills. Improper disposal of these biological wastes contributes to environmental damage and transmission of diseases. Economic pressures, environmental pressures, increasing interest in using renewable and sustainable raw materials, and the need to decrease reliance on non-renewable petroleum resources behove the industry to find better ways of dealing with waste feathers. A closer look at the structure and composition of feathers shows that the whole part of a chicken feather (rachis and barb) can be used as a source of a pure structural protein called keratin which can be exploited for conversion into a number of high-value bio products. Additionally, a number of technologies can be used to convert other biological components of feathers into high value added products. Thus, conversion of the waste into valuable products can make feathers an attractive raw material for the production of bio products. In this review, possible applications of chicken feathers in a variety of technologies and products are discussed. Thus, using waste feathers as a valuable resource can help the poultry industry to dispose of the waste feathers in an environmentally sustainable manner that also generates extra income for the industry. Their valorisation can result in their sustainable conversion into high-value materials and products on the proviso of existence or development of cost-effective technologies for converting this waste into the useful products.

Keywords: keratin, valorisation, biodegradable product, poultry waste, feathers

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1 Valorisation of Mango Seed: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization of Starch Extraction from Mango Seeds

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole

Abstract:

Box-Behnken Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield and whiteness index from mango seed. The steeping time ranges from 2 to 12 hours and slurring of the steeped seed in sodium metabisulphite solution (0.1 to 0.5 w/v) was carried out. Experiments were designed according to Box-Behnken Design with these three factors and a total of 15 runs experimental variables of were analyzed. At linear level, the concentration of sodium metabisulphite had significant positive influence on percentage yield and whiteness index at p<0.05. At quadratic level, sodium metabisulphite concentration and sodium metabisulphite concentration2 had a significant negative influence on starch yield; sodium metabisulphite concentration and steeping time*temperature had significant (p<0.05) positive influence on whiteness index. The adjusted R2 above 0.8 for starch yield (0.906465) and whiteness index (0.909268) showed a good fit of the model with the experimental data. The optimum sodium metabisulphite concentration, steeping hours, and temperature for starch isolation with maximum starch yield (66.428%) and whiteness index (85%) as set goals for optimization with the desirability of 0.91939 was 0.255w/v concentration, 2hrs and 50 °C respectively. The determined experimental value of each response based on optimal condition was statistically in accordance with predicted levels at p<0.05. The Mango seeds are the by-products obtained during mango processing and possess disposal problem if not handled properly. The substitution of food based sizing agents with mango seed starch can contribute as pertinent resource deployment for value-added product manufacturing and waste utilization which might play significance role of food security in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Textile, sizing, Extraction, Starch, mango, synthetic sizing agent

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