Gunawan

Abstracts

2 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Gunawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Detty Iryani

Abstract:

Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: surface hardness, glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, Vickers hardness tester

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1 Balance of Natural Resources to Manage Land Use Changes in Subosukawonosraten Area

Authors: Sri E. Wati, D. Roswidyatmoko, N. Maslahatun, Gunawan, Andhika B. Taji

Abstract:

Natural resource is the main sources to fulfill human needs. Its utilization must consider not only human prosperity but also sustainability. Balance of natural resources is a tool to manage natural wealth and to control land use change. This tool is needed to organize land use planning as stated on spatial plan in a certain region. Balance of natural resources can be calculated by comparing two-series of natural resource data obtained at different year. In this case, four years data period of land and forest were used (2010 and 2014). Land use data were acquired through satellite image interpretation and field checking. By means of GIS analysis, its result was then assessed with land use plan. It is intended to evaluate whether existing land use is suitable with land use plan. If it is improper, what kind of efforts and policies must be done to overcome the situation. Subosukawonosraten is rapid developed areas in Central Java Province. This region consists of seven regencies/cities which are Sukoharjo Regency, Boyolali Regency, Surakarta City, Karanganyar Regency, Wonogiri Regency, Sragen Regency, and Klaten Regency. This region is regarding to several former areas under Karasidenan Surakarta and their location is adjacent to Surakarta. Balance of forest resources show that width of forest area is not significantly changed. Some land uses within the area are slightly changed. Some rice field areas are converted into settlement (0.03%) whereas water bodies become vacant areas (0.09%). On the other hand, balance of land resources state that there are many land use changes in this region. Width area of rice field decreases 428 hectares and more than 50% of them have been transformed into settlement area and 11.21% is converted into buildings such as factories, hotels, and other infrastructures. It occurs mostly in Sragen, Sukoharjo, and Karanganyar Regency. The results illustrate that land use change in this region is mostly influenced by increasing of population number. Some agricultural lands have been converted into built-up area since demand of settlement, industrial area, and other infrastructures also increases. Unfortunately, recent utilization of more than a half of total area is not appropriate with land use plan declared in spatial planning document. It means, local government shall develop a strict regulation and law enforcement related to any violation in land use management.

Keywords: land, Forest, Balance, spatial plan

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