Milica Vinčić


3 Antimicrobial Activity of Sour Cherry Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Aleksandra Velićanski, Dragoljub Cvetković, Siniša Markov, Eva Lončar, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Milica Vinčić


Due to high content of bioactive compounds, sour cherry possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, waste material from industrial processing of sour cherry is also a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of sour cherry pomace extract. Tested strains were Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and wild isolates Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and wild isolates Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus sp.) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 112, Hefebank Weihenstephan and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was tested by disc-diffusion method and agar-well diffusion method. MIC and MBC were determined by microdilution method. Screening tests showed that Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tested extract, with exception of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella sp. for which only zones of reduced growth appeared. However, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive where the highest clear zones appeared with 100 µl of extract applied. There was no activity against tested yeasts. MIC and MBC values were in the range 3.125-37.5 mg/ml and 6.25-100 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible strain was Staphylococcus aureus while the most resistant was Bacillus sp. where MBC was not found in tested concentration range. Sour cherry pomace possesses high antibacterial potential, which indicates that this waste material is a promising source of bioactive compounds and could be used as a functional food ingredient.

Keywords: Bioactive Compounds, Antimicrobial activity, pomace, sour cherry

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2 Distribution of Antioxidants between Sour Cherry Juice and Pomace

Authors: Sonja Djilas, Gordana Ćetković, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Slađana Stajčić, Jelena Vulić, Milica Vinčić


In recent years, interest in food rich in bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, increased the advantages of the functional food products. Bioactive components help to maintain health and prevention of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and many other degenerative diseases. Recent research has shown that the fruit pomace, a byproduct generated from the production of juice, can be a potential source of valuable bioactive compounds. The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing of functional foods represents an important new step for the food industry. Sour cherries have considerable nutritional, medicinal, dietetic and technological value. According to the production volume of cherries, Serbia ranks seventh in the world, with a share of 7% of the total production. The use of sour cherry pomace has so far been limited to animal feed, even though it can be potentially a good source of polyphenols. For this study, local variety of sour cherry cv. ‘Feketićka’ was chosen for its more intensive taste and deeper red color, indicating high anthocyanin content. The contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, as well as radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals and reducing power of sour cherry juice and pomace were compared using spectrophotometrical assays. According to the results obtained, 66.91% of total polyphenols, 46.77% of flavonoids, 46.77% of total anthocyanins and 47.88% of anthocyanin monomers from sour cherry fruits have been transferred to juice. On the other hand, 29.85% of total polyphenols, 33.09% of flavonoids, 53.23% of total anthocyanins and 52.12% of anthocyanin monomers remained in pomace. Regarding radical scavenging activity, 65.51% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherries were exported to juice, while 34.49% was left in pomace. However, reducing power of sour cherry juice was much stronger than pomace (91.28% and 8.72% of Trolox equivalents from sour cherry fruits, respectively). Based on our results it can be concluded that sour cherry pomace is still a rich source of natural antioxidants, especially anthocyanins with coloring capacity, therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: Antioxidants, polyphenols, pomace, sour cherry

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1 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Chokeberries

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Sonja Djilas, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Milica Vinčić


Substantial interest has been expressed in fruits and berries due to their potential favourable health effects and high content of polyphenols, especially flavonoids and anthocyanins. Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) are dark berries, similar to blackcurrants, that have been used by native Americans both as a food resource and in traditional medicine for treatment of cold. Epidemiological studies revealed positive effects of chokeberries on colorectal cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory conditions. Chokeberries are well known as good natural antioxidants, which contain phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanidins and antioxidant vitamins. The aim of this study was to provide information on polyphenolic compounds present in fresh chokeberries as well as to determine its antioxidant activity. Individual polyphenolic compounds have been identified and quantified using HPLC/UV-Vis. Results showed that the most dominant phenolic acid was protocatechuic acid (274.23 mg/100 g FW), flavonoid rutin (319.66 mg/100 g FW) and anthocyanin cyanidin-3-galactoside (1532.68 mg/100 g FW). Generally, anthocyanins were predominant compounds in fresh chokeberry (2342.82 mg/100 g FW). Four anthocyanins have been identified in fresh chokeberry and all of them were cyanidin glicosides. Antioxidant activity was determined using spectrophotometric DPPH assay and compared to standard antioxidant compound vitamin C. The resulting EC50 value (amount of fresh chokeberries that scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals) is 0.33 mg vitamin C equivalent/100 g FW. The results of this investigation provide evidence on high contents of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, in chokeberries as well as high antioxidant activity of this fruit.

Keywords: polyphenols, antioxidant, chokeberry, DPPH radicals

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