Paisan Kongkachuichay


2 Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper

Authors: Thidarat Imyen, Paisan Kongkachuichay


Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.

Keywords: Copper, zinc, nitrogen oxide, selective catalytic reduction, Al-MCM-41

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1 Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Crystal Size and Perfection of Mordenite and Analcime

Authors: Zehui Du, Chaiwat Prapainainar, Paisan Kongkachuichay, Paweena Prapainainar


The aim of this work was to obtain small crystalline size and high crystallinity of mordenites and analcimes, by modifying the aging time, agitation, water content, crystallization temperature and crystallization time. Two different hydrothermal methods were studied. Both methods used Na2SiO3 as the silica source, NaAlO2 as the aluminum source, and NaOH as the alkali source. The first method used HMI as the template while the second method did not use the template. Mordenite crystals with spherical shape and bimodal in size of about 1 and 5 µm were obtained from the first method using conditions of 24 hr aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization. Modernites with high crystallinity were formed using agitation system in the crystallization process. It was also found that the aging time of 2 hr and 24 hr did not much affect the formation of mordenite crystals. Analcime crystals were formed in spherical shape and facet on surface with the size between 13-15 µm by the second method using the conditions of 30 minutes aging time, 170°C and 24 hr crystallization without calcination. By increasing water content, the crystallization process was slowed down and resulted in smaller analcime crystals. Larger size of analcime crystals were observed when the samples were calcined at 300°C and 580°C. Higher calcination temperature led to higher crystal growth and resulted in larger crystal size. Finally, mordenite and analcime was used as fillers in zeolite/Nafion composite membrane to solve the fuel cross over problem in direct alcohol fuel cell.

Keywords: Zeolite, Hydrothermal Synthesis, analcime, mordenite

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