Ian Marc G. Cabugsa

Abstracts

3 Optimization of Cacao Fermentation in Davao Philippines Using Sustainable Method

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan Won, Kareem Mamac, Manuel Dee, Merlita Garcia

Abstract:

An optimized cacao fermentation technique was developed for the cacao farmers of Davao City Philippines. Cacao samples with weights ranging from 150-250 kilograms were collected from various cacao farms in Davao City and Zamboanga City Philippines. Different fermentation techniques were used starting with design of the sweat box, prefermentation conditionings, number of days for fermentation and number of turns. As the beans are being fermented, its temperature was regularly monitored using a digital thermometer. The resultant cacao beans were assessed using physical and chemical means. For the physical assessment, the bean cut test, bean count tests, and sensory test were used. Quantification of theobromine, caffeine, and antioxidants in the form of equivalent quercetin was used for chemical assessment. Both the theobromine and caffeine were analyzed using HPLC method while the antioxidant was analyzed spectrometrically. To come up with the best fermentation procedure, the different assessment were given priority coefficients wherein the physical tests – taste test, cut, and bean count tests were given priority over the results of the chemical test. The result of the study was an optimized fermentation protocol that is readily adaptable and transferable to any cacao cooperatives or groups in Mindanao or even Philippines as a whole.

Keywords: Optimization, Fermentation, HPLC, Philippines, cacao

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2 Optimized Simultaneous Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Fermented and Unfermented Cacao Beans and in Cocoa Products Using Step Gradient Solvent System in Reverse Phase HPLC

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Kim Ryan A. Won

Abstract:

Fast, reliable and simultaneous HPLC analysis of theobromine and caffeine in cacao and cocoa products was optimized in this study. The samples tested were raw, fermented, and roasted cacao beans as well as commercially available cocoa products. The HPLC analysis was carried out using step gradient solvent system with acetonitrile and water buffered with H3PO4 as the mobile phase. The HPLC system was optimized using 273 nm wavelength at 35 °C for the column temperature with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Using this method, the theobromine percent recovery mean, Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) is 118.68(±3.38)%, 0.727 and 1.05 respectively. The percent recovery mean, LOD and LOQ for caffeine is 105.53(±3.25)%, 2.42 and 3.50 respectively. The inter-day and intra-day precision for theobromine is 4.31% and 4.48% respectively, while 7.02% and 7.03% was for caffeine respectively. Compared to the standard method in AOAC using methanol in isocratic solvent system, the results of the study produced lesser chromatogram noise with emphasis on theobromine and caffeine. The method is readily usable for cacao and cocoa substances analyses using HPLC with step gradient capability.

Keywords: HPLC, Caffeine, cacao, step gradient solvent system, theobromine

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1 Effect of Edta in the Phytoextraction of Copper by Terminalia catappa (Talisay) Linnaeus

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Zarine M. Hermita

Abstract:

Phytoextraction capability of T. catappa in contaminated soils was done in the improvised greenhouse. The plant samples were planted to the soil which contained different concentrations of copper. Chelating agent EDTA was added to observe the uptake and translocation of copper in the plant samples. Results showed a significant increase of copper accumulation with the addition of EDTA at 250 and 1250 mgˑkg-1 concentration of copper in the contaminated soils (p<0.05). While translocation of copper was observed in all treatments, translocation of copper is not significantly enhanced by the addition of EDTA (p>0.05). Uptake and translocation were not directly affected the presence of EDTA. Furthermore, this study suggests that the T. catappa is not a hyperaccumulator of copper, and there is no relationship observed between the length of the plant and the copper uptake in all treatments.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, phytoextraction, chelating agent EDTA, hyperaccumulator, terminalia catappa

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