Mahendra Rai

Abstracts

4 Lifestyle Switching Phenomenon of Plant Associated Fungi

Authors: Mahendra Rai, Gauravi Agarkar

Abstract:

Fungi are closely associated with the plants in various types of interactions such as mycorrhizal, parasitic or endophytic. Some of these interactions are beneficial and a few are harmful to the host plants. It has been suggested that these plant-associated fungi are able to change their lifestyle abd this means endophyte may become parasite or vice versa. This phenomenon may have profound effect on plant-fungal interactions and various ecological niches. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the factors that trigger the change in fungal lifestyle and understand whether these different lifestyles are interconnected at some points either by physiological, biochemical or molecular routes. This review summarizes the factors affecting plant fungal interactions and discusses the possible mechanisms for lifestyles switching of fungi based on available experimental evidences. Research should be boosted in this direction to fetch more advantages in future and to avoid the severe consequences in agriculture and other related fields.

Keywords: endophytic, lifestyle switching, mycorrhizal, parasitic, plant-fungal interactions

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3 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, core-shell arrangement, mycosynthesis, sequential reduction

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2 Morphological and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Colletotrichum Species from Medicinal Plants and Their Antimicrobial Potential

Authors: Mahendra Rai, Gauravi Agarkar

Abstract:

Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are important source of numerous pharmacologically important compounds. In the present investigation, the endophytic fungi were isolated from three medicinal plants; Andrographis paniculata, Rauwolfia serpentina and Tridax procumbens. Endophytic Colletotrichum sp. were identified on the basis of cultural and morphological characteristics as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of endophytic Colletotrichum sp. was evaluated against seven different human pathogenic bacteria and six Candida sp. The extracts were effective and showed significant activity against all the test pathogens. In case of yeast Candida, the combined effect of extracts and standard antibiotic was enhanced greatly showing synergistic activity. Further, the extracts were assayed for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) where, MIC values were in the range of 100-250 μg/ml. These results suggest that the endophytic Colletotrichum sp. isolated from the medicinal plants are capable of producing promising antimicrobial metabolites.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Medicinal Plants, endophytic fungi, colletotrichum

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1 Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, quercetin, chitosan nanoparticles, Pongamia pinnata

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