Maletsema Alina Mofokeng

Abstracts

2 Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Sorghum Accessions Using Agro-Mophological and Nutritional Traits

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Nemera Shargie

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown as a source of calories for many people in tropics and sub-tropics of the world. Proper characterisation and evaluation of crop germplasm is an important component for effective management of genetic resources and their utilisation in the improvement of the crop through plant breeding. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic diversity present in sorghum accessions grown in South Africa using agro-morphological traits and some nutritional contents. The experiment was carried out in Potchefstroom. Data were subjected to correlations, principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering using GenStat statistical software. There were highly significance differences among the accessions based on agro-morphological and nutritional quality traits. Grain yield was highly positively correlated with panicle weight. Plant height was highly significantly correlated with internode length, leaf length, leaf number, stem diameter, the number of nodes and starch content. The Principal component analysis revealed three most important PCs with a total variation of 78.6%. The protein content ranged from 7.7 to 14.7%, and starch ranged from 58.52 to 80.44%. The accessions that had high protein and starch content were AS16cyc and MP4277. There was vast genetic diversity observed among the accessions assessed that can be used by plant breeders to improve yield and nutritional traits.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, Nutritional Quality, sorghum, accessions

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1 Genetic Diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Genotypes as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Maletsema Alina Mofokeng, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing, Pangirayi Tongoona

Abstract:

Sorghum is one of the most important cereal crops grown for food, feed and bioenergy. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for conservation of genetic resources and improvement of crop plants through breeding. The objective of this study was to assess the level of genetic diversity among sorghum genotypes using microsatellite markers. A total of 103 accessions of sorghum genotypes obtained from the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the African Centre for Crop Improvement and Agricultural Research Council-Grain Crops Institute collections in South Africa were estimated using 30 microsatellite markers. For all the loci analysed, 306 polymorphic alleles were detected with a mean value of 6.4 per locus. The polymorphic information content had an average value of 0.50 with heterozygosity mean value of 0.55 suggesting an important genetic diversity within the sorghum genotypes used. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering based on Euclidian coefficients revealed two major distinct groups without allocating genotypes based on the source of collection or origin. The genotypes 4154.1.1.1, 2055.1.1.1, 4441.1.1.1, 4442.1.1.1, 4722.1.1.1, and 4606.1.1.1 were the most diverse. The sorghum genotypes with high genetic diversity could serve as important sources of novel alleles for breeding and strategic genetic conservation.

Keywords: Genetic Diversity, sorghum, genotypes, microsatellites

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