Hyuk-Hoon Kim


3 Limited Ventilation Efficacy of Prehospital I-Gel Insertion in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients

Authors: Eunhye Cho, Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Sieun Lee, Minjung Kathy Chae


Introduction: I-gel is a commonly used supraglottic advanced airway device in prehospital out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) allowing for minimal interruption of continuous chest compression. However, previous studies have shown that prehospital supraglottic airway had inferior neurologic outcomes and survival compared to no advanced prehospital airway with conventional bag mask ventilation. We hypothesize that continuous compression with i-gel as an advanced airway may cause insufficient ventilation compared to 30:2 chest compression with conventional BVM. Therefore, we investigated the ventilation efficacy of i-gel with the initial arterial blood gas analysis in OHCA patients visiting our ER. Material and Method: Demographics, arrest parameters including i-gel insertion, initial arterial blood gas analysis was retrospectively analysed for 119 transported OHCA patients that visited our ER. Linear regression was done to investigate the association with i-gel insertion and initial pCO2 as a surrogate of prehospital ventilation. Result: A total of 52 patients were analysed for the study. Of the patients who visited the ER during OHCA, 24 patients had i-gel insertion and 28 patients had BVM as airway management in the prehospital phase. Prehospital i-gel insertion was associated with the initial pCO2 level (B coefficient 29.9, SE 10.1, p<0.01) after adjusting for bystander CPR, cardiogenic cause of arrest, EMS call to arrival. Conclusion: Despite many limitations to the study, prehospital insertion of i-gel was associated with high initial pCO2 values in OHCA patients visiting our ER, possibly indicating insufficient ventilation with prehospital i-gel as an advanced airway and continuous chest compressions.

Keywords: ventilation, prehospital, i-gel, arrest

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2 Ethanol in Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Focus on Delayed Neuropsychological Sequelae

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min


Background: In carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication, the pathophysiology of delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) is very complex and remains poorly understood. And predicting whether patients who exhibit resolved acute symptoms have escaped or will experience DNS represents a very important clinical issue. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been conducted to assess the severity of brain damage as an objective method to predict prognosis. And co-ingestion of a second poison in patients with intentional CO poisoning occurs in almost one-half of patients. Among patients with co-ingestions, 66% ingested ethanol. We assessed the effects of ethanol on neurologic sequelae prevalence in acute CO intoxication by means of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Method: This study was conducted retrospectively by collecting data for patients who visited an emergency medical center during a period of 5 years. The enrollment criteria were diagnosis of acute CO poisoning and the measurement of the serum ethanol level and history of taking a brain MR during admission period. Official readout data by radiologist are used to decide whether abnormal lesion is existed or not. The enrolled patients were divided into two groups: patients with abnormal lesion and without abnormal lesion in Brain MR. A standardized extraction using medical record was performed; Mann Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Result: A total of 112 patients were enrolled, and 68 patients presented abnormal brain lesion on MR. The abnormal brain lesion group had lower serum ethanol level (mean, 20.14 vs 46.71 mg/dL) (p-value<0.001). In addition, univariate logistic regression analysis showed the serum ethanol level (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 -1.00) was independently associated with the development of abnormal lesion in brain MR. Conclusion: Ethanol could have neuroprotective effect in acute CO intoxication by sedative effect in stressful situation and mitigative effect in neuro-inflammatory reaction.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance, Ethanol, carbon monoxide, delayed neuropsychological sequelae, intoxication

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1 Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Emergency Departments: Multicenter Study in Korea

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min


Background: Acute poisoning is the common cause of morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of acute poisoning differ between countries. While other countries operate the database system for poisoning, Korea has not collected the database for acute poisoning. Distribution of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials have also not studied in Korea. Our aims are to evaluate the etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases and to obtain up-to-date information on acute poisonings. Method: We retrospectively recorded cases of acute poisoning from eight emergency departments of second level or university hospitals from different cities in Gyeonggi province in Korea from April 2006 and March 2015. The distributions of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials are mapped by geographic information system. Result: A total of 3,449 poisoned cases were analyzed. Mean estimated age of patients was 39.56 ± 22.40 years. Mean male to female ratio of patients was 1:1.4. Mean proportion of intentional poisoning was 57.9%. Common materials are benzodiazepine (16.6%), carbon monoxide (10.5%), pesticide (8.1%) and zolpidem (7.1%) Common route of exposure is ingestion (79.5%) and followed by inhalation (16.5%). Common treatment methods are gastric lavage (20%) and activated charcoal (30%). Most cases had uneventful recovery; 61.4% were treated as outpatients and 0.1% of the poisoning resulted in death in ER. Conclusion: Even though the cases enrolled in our study is not the overall cases of acute poisoning in Korea, our study could be the basis of countermeasures for analysis and prevention of acute poisoning in Korea.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Emergency Department, Korea, acute poisoning

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