Garnette R. Sutherland

Publications

1 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: supervisory control, Robot-Assisted Surgery, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration

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Abstracts

3 A Microsurgery-Specific End-Effector Equipped with a Bipolar Surgical Tool and Haptic Feedback

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Sanju Lama, Garnette R. Sutherland

Abstract:

In tele-operative robotic surgery, an ideal haptic device should be equipped with an intuitive and smooth end-effector to cover the surgeon’s hand/wrist degrees of freedom (DOF) and translate the hand joint motions to the end-effector of the remote manipulator with low effort and high level of comfort. This research introduces the design and development of a microsurgery-specific end-effector, a gimbal mechanism possessing 4 passive and 1 active DOFs, equipped with a bipolar forceps and haptic feedback. The robust gimbal structure is comprised of three light-weight links/joint, pitch, yaw, and roll, each consisting of low-friction support and a 2-channel accurate optical position sensor. The third link, which provides the tool roll, was specifically designed to grip the tool prongs and accommodate a low mass geared actuator together with a miniaturized capstan-rope mechanism. The actuator is able to generate delicate torques, using a threaded cylindrical capstan, to emulate the sense of pinch/coagulation during conventional microsurgery. While the tool left prong is fixed to the rolling link, the right prong bears a miniaturized drum sector with a large diameter to expand the force scale and resolution. The drum transmits the actuator output torque to the right prong and generates haptic force feedback at the tool level. The tool is also equipped with a hall-effect sensor and magnet bar installed vis-à-vis on the inner side of the two prongs to measure the tooltip distance and provide an analogue signal to the control system. We believe that such a haptic end-effector could significantly increase the accuracy of telerobotic surgery and help avoid high forces that are known to cause bleeding/injury.

Keywords: Robotic Surgery, haptic interface, tele-operation, end-effector, force generation, surgical tool

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2 Accuracy/Precision Evaluation of Excalibur I: A Neurosurgery-Specific Haptic Hand Controller

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Sanju Lama, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia, Benjamin Durante, Alex Irwin

Abstract:

This study reports on a proposed method to evaluate the accuracy and precision of Excalibur I, a neurosurgery-specific haptic hand controller, designed and developed at Project neuroArm. Having an efficient and successful robot-assisted telesurgery is considerably contingent on how accurate and precise a haptic hand controller (master/local robot) would be able to interpret the kinematic indices of motion, i.e., position and orientation, from the surgeon’s upper limp to the slave/remote robot. A proposed test rig is designed and manufactured according to standard ASTM F2554-10 to determine the accuracy and precision range of Excalibur I at four different locations within its workspace: central workspace, extreme forward, far left and far right. The test rig is metrologically characterized by a coordinate measuring machine (accuracy and repeatability < ± 5 µm). Only the serial linkage of the haptic device is examined due to the use of the Structural Length Index (SLI). The results indicate that accuracy decreases by moving from the workspace central area towards the borders of the workspace. In a comparative study, Excalibur I performs on par with the PHANToM PremiumTM 3.0 and more accurate/precise than the PHANToM PremiumTM 1.5. The error in Cartesian coordinate system shows a dominant component in one direction (δx, δy or δz) for the movements on horizontal, vertical and inclined surfaces. The average error magnitude of three attempts is recorded, considering all three error components. This research is the first promising step to quantify the kinematic performance of Excalibur I.

Keywords: Precision, Advanced Metrology, Robot-Assisted Surgery, Accuracy, workspace, hand controller, tele-operation

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1 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia

Abstract:

This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: supervisory control, Robot-Assisted Surgery, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration

Procedia PDF Downloads 151