Muhammad Amin

Publications

1 Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Semarang State University Campus

Authors: Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati, Puji Hardati, Tri Marhaeni Puji Astuti, Muhammad Amin

Abstract:

Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is the existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality,  energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and awareness of citizens in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students and employees). The research area covers 6 faculties and one administrative center building. Data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The research used a quantitative descriptive method to analyze the data. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264. Total emission on campus UNNES is 7.862.281.56 kg/year, the tree absorption is 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still 1,575,031.18 kg/year of emissions, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions. The awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing energy consumption is seen in change the habit of: using energy-saving equipment (65%); reduce energy consumption per unit (68%); do energy literacy for UNNES citizens (74%). UNNES leaders always provide motivation to the citizens of UNNES, to reduce and change patterns of energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, emission reduction, carbon emission absorption, energy literation

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Abstracts

3 Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Semarang State University Campus

Authors: Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati, Puji Hardati, Tri Marhaeni Puji Astuti, Muhammad Amin

Abstract:

Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is the existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality,  energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and awareness of citizens in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students and employees). The research area covers 6 faculties and one administrative center building. Data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The research used a quantitative descriptive method to analyze the data. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264. Total emission on campus UNNES is 7.862.281.56 kg/year, the tree absorption is 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still 1,575,031.18 kg/year of emissions, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions. The awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing energy consumption is seen in change the habit of: using energy-saving equipment (65%); reduce energy consumption per unit (68%); do energy literacy for UNNES citizens (74%). UNNES leaders always provide motivation to the citizens of UNNES, to reduce and change patterns of energy consumption.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, emission reduction, carbon emission absorption, energy literation

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2 Estimation of Small Hydropower Potential Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Tahir, Muhammad Amin, Malik Abid Hussain Khokhar

Abstract:

Energy demand has been increased manifold due to increasing population, urban sprawl and rapid socio-economic improvements. Low water capacity in dams for continuation of hydrological power, land cover and land use are the key parameters which are creating problems for more energy production. Overall installed hydropower capacity of Pakistan is more than 35000 MW whereas Pakistan is producing up to 17000 MW and the requirement is more than 22000 that is resulting shortfall of 5000 - 7000 MW. Therefore, there is a dire need to develop small hydropower to fulfill the up-coming requirements. In this regards, excessive rainfall, snow nurtured fast flowing perennial tributaries and streams in northern mountain regions of Pakistan offer a gigantic scope of hydropower potential throughout the year. Rivers flowing in KP (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) province, GB (Gilgit Baltistan) and AJK (Azad Jammu & Kashmir) possess sufficient water availability for rapid energy growth. In the backdrop of such scenario, small hydropower plants are believed very suitable measures for more green environment and power sustainable option for the development of such regions. Aim of this study is to estimate hydropower potential sites for small hydropower plants and stream distribution as per steam network available in the available basins in the study area. The proposed methodology will focus on features to meet the objectives i.e. site selection of maximum hydropower potential for hydroelectric generation using well emerging GIS tool SWAT as hydrological run-off model on the Neelum, Kunhar and the Dor Rivers’ basins. For validation of the results, NDWI will be computed to show water concentration in the study area while overlaying on geospatial enhanced DEM. This study will represent analysis of basins, watershed, stream links, and flow directions with slope elevation for hydropower potential to produce increasing demand of electricity by installing small hydropower stations. Later on, this study will be benefitted for other adjacent regions for further estimation of site selection for installation of such small power plants as well.

Keywords: Energy, Evapotranspiration, SWAT, stream network, basins

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1 Effect of Anionic Lipid on Zeta Potential Values and Physical Stability of Liposomal Amikacin

Authors: Muhammad Amin, Yulistiani, Fasich

Abstract:

A surface charge of the nanoparticle is a very important consideration in pulmonal drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) is related to the surface charge which can predict stability of nanoparticles as nebules of liposomal amikacin. Anionic lipid such as 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is expected to contribute to the physical stability of liposomal amikacin and the optimal ZP value. Suitable ZP can improve drug release profiles at specific sites in alveoli as well as their stability in dosage form. This study aimed to analyze the effect of DPPG on ZP values and physical stability of liposomal amikacin. Liposomes were prepared by using the reserved phase evaporation method. Liposomes consisting of DPPG, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol and amikacin were formulated in five different compositions 0/150/5/100, 10//150/5/100, 20/150/5/100, 30/150/5/100 and 40/150/5/100 (w/v) respectively. A chloroform/methanol mixture in the ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v) was used as solvent to dissolve lipids. These systems were adjusted in the phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Nebules of liposomal amikacin were produced by using the vibrating nebulizer and then characterized by the X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, and scanning electron microscope. Amikacin concentration from liposome leakage was determined by the immunoassay method. The study revealed that presence of DPPG could increase the ZP value. The addition of 10 mg DPPG in the composition resulted in increasing of ZP value to 3.70 mV (negatively charged). The optimum ZP value was reached at -28.780 ± 0.70 mV and particle size of nebules 461.70 ± 21.79 nm. Nebulizing process altered parameters such as particle size, conformation of lipid components and the amount of surface charges of nanoparticles which could influence the ZP value. These parameters might have profound effects on the application of nebules in the alveoli; however, negatively charge nanoparticles were unexpected to have a high ZP value in this system due to increased macrophage uptake and pulmonal clearance. Therefore, the ratio of liposome 20/150/5/100 (w/v) resulted in the most stable colloidal system and might be applicable to pulmonal drug delivery system.

Keywords: Stability, zeta potential, anionic lipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, liposomal amikacin

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