A. Haddad

Publications

2 Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential

Authors: N. Ullah, A. Haddad, F. Van Der Linde

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.

Keywords: System, Integrity, EPR, Bonding, earthing

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1 Application of De-Laval Nozzle Transonic Flow Field Computation Approaches

Authors: A. Haddad, H. Kbab

Abstract:

A supersonic expansion cannot be achieved within a convergent-divergent nozzle if the flow velocity does not reach that of the sound at the throat. The computation of the flow field characteristics at the throat is thus essential to the nozzle developed thrust value and therefore to the aircraft or rocket it propels. Several approaches were developed in order to describe the transonic expansion, which takes place through the throat of a De-Laval convergent-divergent nozzle. They all allow reaching good results but showing a major shortcoming represented by their inability to describe the transonic flow field for nozzles having a small throat radius. The approach initially developed by Kliegel & Levine uses the velocity series development in terms of the normalized throat radius added to unity instead of solely the normalized throat radius or the traditional small disturbances theory approach. The present investigation carries out the application of these three approaches for different throat radiuses of curvature. The method using the normalized throat radius added to unity shows better results when applied to geometries integrating small throat radiuses.

Keywords: Transonic Flow, supersonic nozzle, De-Laval nozzles, transonic calculations

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Abstracts

5 Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential

Authors: N. Ullah, A. Haddad, F. Van Der Linde

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.

Keywords: System, Integrity, EPR, Bonding, earthing

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4 Manufacturing and Characterization of Ni-Matrix Composite Reinforced with Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC; and Al-Matrix with Ti2SiC

Authors: M. Hadji, N. Chiker, Y. Hadji, A. Haddad

Abstract:

In this paper, we report for the first time on the synthesis and characterization of novel MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti2AlC) reinforced Ni-matrix and Ti2AlC reinforced Al-matrix. The stability of MAX phases in Al-matrix and Ni-matrix at a temperature of 985°C has been investigated. All the composites were cold pressed and sintered at a temperature of 985°C for 20min in H2 environment, except (Ni/Ti3SiC2) who was sintered at 1100°C for 1h.Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between MAX particles and Ni, thus Al/MAX samples shown that MAX phases was totally decomposed at 985°C.The Addition of MAX enhanced the Al-matrix and Ni-matrix.

Keywords: Composites, Microstructures, Hardness, SEM, MAX phase

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3 The Friction and Wear Behaviour of Ti2AlC MAX Phase

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of Ti2AlC were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti2AlC, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti2AlC. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti2AlC from 6 GPa to 13GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, it was found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti2AlC/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti2AlC under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti2AlC.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

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2 The Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC-Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modify the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7 N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 under Al2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, MAX phase, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1 The Effects of Boronizing Treatment on the Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC- Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modity the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 underAl2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: friction, MAX phase, wearing, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 304