S. N. Al-Bahry

Publications

2 Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Green Turtles are Indicators of Environmental Pollution

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Freshly laid eggs from green turtles, Chelonia mydas, were randomly collected from Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Oman. Eggshells taken from eggs and sand collected from the body chamber were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P<0.05) between nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Ak = amikacin, Ak = amikacin, Amp= ampicillin, Gm= gentamycin, Cn = chloramphenicol, Min = minocycline, N = Neomycin, S= streptomycin, Smx = sulphamethoxazole, Tmp = trimethoprim, Tob = tobramycin was tested. More than 40% of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of human contaminated effluents.

Keywords: Environment, Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance, sea turtles, heavy metals

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1 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: Remediation, Interfacial tension, surface tension, oil contamination, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant

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Abstracts

4 Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria as Indicators of Effluent Environmental Pollution in the Green Turtles, Chelonia Mydas

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

Abstract:

At Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Eggs from green turtles and Chelonia mydas were randomly collected immediately after Oviposition. Eggshells taken from fresh eggs and sand collected from the body chamber were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P<0.05) between nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin, and Trimethoprim was tested. More than 40 % of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-7 antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of human contaminated effluents.

Keywords: Environment, Heavy Metals, Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance, sea turtles

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3 Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.

Keywords: Environment, Bacteria, Antibiotic Resistance, sewage treated effluent

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2 Potential Use of Spore-Forming Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in Oil-Pollution Bioremediation

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, S. J. Joshi, E. A. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bimani

Abstract:

Oman is one of the oil producing countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf region. About 30-40 % of oil produced from the Gulf is transported globally along the seacoast of Oman. Oil pollution from normal tanker operations, ballast water, illegal discharges and accidental spills are always serious threats to terrestrial and marine habitats. Due to Oman’s geographical location at arid region where the temperature ranges between high 40s and low 50s Celsius in summers with low annual rainfall, the main source of fresh water is desalinated sea and brackish water. Oil pollution, therefore, pose a major threat to drinking water. Biosurfactants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms in hydrophobic environments to release nutrients from solid surfaces, such as oil. In this study, indigenous oil degrading thermophilic spore forming bacteria were isolated from oil fields contaminated soil. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF biotyper and 16s RNA. Their growth conditions were optimized for the production of biosurfactant. Surface tension, interfacial tensions and microbial oil biodegradation capabilities were tested. Some thermophilic bacteria degraded either completely or partially heavy crude oil (API 10-15) within 48h suggesting their high potential in oil spill bioremediation and avoiding the commonly used physical and chemical methods which usually lead to other environmental pollution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bacteria, biosurfactant, crude-oil-pollution

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1 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: Remediation, Interfacial tension, surface tension, oil contamination, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 109