Lakhveer Singh

Publications

1 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, immobilization, tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification

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Abstracts

5 Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Bacterial Properties of Camellia sinensis, Tea Plant

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah, Sveta Thakur, Rini Jarial, Puranjan Mishra

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to assess the biological properties of Camellia sinensis and to identify its functional compounds. The methanolic leaves-extract (MLE) of commercial green tea (Camellia sinensis) was assessed for anti-bacterial activities by measuring inhibition zones against a panel of pathogenic bacterial strains using agar diffusion method. The flavonoid (5.0 to 8.0 mg/ml) and protein content (10 to 15 mg/ml) of the MLE were recorded. MLE at a concentration of 25 μg/ml showed marked anti-bacterial activity against all bacterial strains (11-30 mm zone of inhibition) and was maximum against Staphylococcus aureus (30 mm). The MLE of Camellia sinensis had the best MIC values of 2.25 and 0.56 mg/ml against S. aureus and Enterobacter sp., respectively. The MLE also possessed good anti-lipolytic activity (65%) against a Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) and cholesterol oxidase inhibition (79%). The present study provided strong experimental evidences that the MLE of Camellia sinensis is not only a potent source of natural anti-oxidants and anti-bacterial activity but also possesses efficient cholesterol degradation and anti-lipolytic activities that might be beneficial in the body weight management.

Keywords: anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity, anti-lipolytic activity, Camellia sinensis, phyto-chemicals

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4 The Optimization of Immobilization Conditions for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Industry Wastewater

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim, Sveta Thakur

Abstract:

Clostridium sp. LS2 was immobilised by entrapment in polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel beads to improve the biohydrogen production rate from palm oil mill effluent (POME). We sought to explore and optimise the hydrogen production capability of the immobilised cells by studying the conditions for cell immobilisation, including PEG concentration, cell loading and curing times, as well as the effects of temperature and K2HPO4 (500–2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (0.1–5.0 mg/L), FeCl2 (100–400 mg/L) MgSO4 (50–200 mg/L) concentrations on hydrogen production rate. The results showed that by optimising the PEG concentration (10% w/v), initial biomass (2.2 g dry weight), curing time (80 min) and temperature (37 °C), as well as the concentrations of K2HPO4 (2000 mg/L), NiCl2 (1 mg/L), FeCl2 (300 mg/L) and MgSO4 (100 mg/L), a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7.3 L/L-POME/day and a yield of 0.31 L H2/g chemical oxygen demand were obtained during continuous operation. We believe that this process may be potentially expanded for sustained and large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Fermentation, palm oil mill effluent, polyethylene glycol, immobilised cell

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3 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, immobilization, tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2 Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Polialuminum Chloride to Treat Palm Oil Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Authors: M. Nasrullah, Lakhveer Singh, Siti Norsita, A. W. Zulrisam, Mimi Sakinah

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and hydrogen peroxide on COD removal by electrocoagulation. The current density was varied between 30-80 mA cm−2, polyaluminum chloride (1-3 g L-1) as coagulant aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. It has been shown that 86.67% of COD was removed by the iron electrode in 180 min while 81.11% of COD was removed by the aluminum electrode in 210 min which indicate that iron was more effective than aluminum. As much as 88.25% COD was removed by using 80 mA cm−2 as compared to 72.86% by using 30 mA cm−2 in 240 min. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The highest removal efficiency of 95.08% was achieved by adding 2% of H2O2 in addition of 3 g L−1 PAC. The general results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30-80 mAcm-2 depending on the concentration of H2O2 and coagulant aid.

Keywords: Hydrogen Peroxide, palm oil mill effluent, chemical oxygen demand, electrocaogulation, polialuminum chloride

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1 The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim

Abstract:

In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.

Keywords: immobilization, dark fermentation, palm oil mill effluent, bioydrogen, polyethylene glycol

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